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Case Study Report for B.Ed Internship Programme

Are you looking for a case study report for B.ed ? In this article, we will provide a case study report for B.ed.

As an intern, we were supposed to identify a problematic child, understand the reasons behind his/her problem and try to provide remedial measures to his/her problem in order to solve and prepare a case study report.

A case study is a detailed examination of an individual, group of people or an occurrence. Case studies comprise of a one on one interview, questionnaires among other data collection forms. A case study involves studying a person’s life and experience to determine the cause of certain behavior. The research may also continue for an extended period, so processes and developments can be studied as they happen.

During the pre-internship phase, we had a session on how to prepare a case study wherein, it was focused on the meaning of the case study its importance, etc. As we have already done a case study in our previous semester and we were well briefed during our orientation session, therefore, I hardly faced any challenges.

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Case study report for B.ed-

Title of the study:   A case study on a  shy and introverted adolescent student named XYZ.

Name of the investigator: ABC

A case study is an intensive, holistic description and analysis of a single social unit such as an individual, a  group, an institution or a community. It is necessary to perform a case study in order to find out problems existing among the students in an educational institution.

This study refers to a student named XYZ studying in 7th  standard in XYZ English School. During my four months internship period of B.Ed 2nd  year in ABC English School, I had observed that the boy XYZ of class  VII  always wants to seat on the back bench.

I did not see him to communicate with other students.  I noticed that  the  boy  tends  to  be  slow  to warm  up  in  social  situation.  I  also  noticed  that  he  is  always  late  in  reaching school.   He faces difficulties in meeting people,  initiating and maintains conversation.

He was unable to give any answer of any question properly. He always tried to stay alone and did not show any interest to make friendship with other  students.  Even  he  did  not  go  to  participate  in  any  competition  or  co- curricular activities. Therefore to know the reasons behind his problems, I have taken  up this  study so  that  I  can help him  to deal  with his  problems  and  can show better performance in his academic career.


The information contained in the case study report is just for the purpose of fulfilling the condition of XYZ University that is compulsory in our B.Ed course,  which  has  to  be  submitted  to  the  college  authority  and  not  for  any personal intension and  usages. The  information provided  in the  report  is  very true and trust worthy. The content of this report must not be disclosed or copied without the   investigator   consent.

A   proper   investigation   is   done   before preparing the report. The suggestions and opinions are expressed in this report are  only  the  perception  of  the  investigator  and  do  not  necessarily  reflect  any other person.


During the four months internship period in XYZ English School, I have noticed that a boy named XYZ of class VII always used to seat in the last bench of the classroom and he hardly communicate  with teachers and other classmates.

Though he is attentive in the class, he was unable to perform any academic  tasks  given  or  the  questions  asked  in the  class. Because  of  this shy  nature  he  always  wanted  to  stay  alone.  Shyness  and  introvert  both  are different psychological traits of human being.

Shyness is a psychological state that  causes  a  person  to  feel  discomfort  in  social  situations  and  that  cause avoidance  of  social  contacts.  Introvert is  another  psychological  state  that describes a person who tends to turn inward mentally.

The behaviour of the boy in the class made me have an assumption of falling him in the category of shy and introvert. After a few observations I was confident about his nature who is unable to share his problems neither  with his classmate nor  with his teachers. This is the rationale behind identifying this boy to study up and to help him to deal with his problems has been suffering for so long.

Case Study Report for B.Ed Internship Programme

Case History:

I  visited his home and talked with his parents.  His parents were very responsive and cooperatively answered my questions.

Physical Status:

Physically the boy is fit and healthy, but he has acne problem in his face and  other  than  that  he  has  same  common  health  issues  which  are  natural  for human being. Because of acne problem his classmates teases him. This may be a  reason  due  to  which  he  feels  shy  and  lack  of  confidence  to  interact  with others.

Mental Status:

He is not mentally so sound. He is unable to read his text books properly and confidently. He always tends to stay alone and gets mentally disturbed or easily panicked whenever he was asked any questions.

The boy XYZ belongs to a middle class family. His father’s name is  XYZ  and  mother’s  name  is  ABC.  He stays with his parents and younger brother.  His  father  is  a  businessmen  and  mother  is housewife.

His parents are aware about his introvert nature but they are not so much concerned about his problems. They do not facilitate him any exercise or practise because of lack of knowledge about his condition. At his home also he talks  very less and always  likes to stay alone. So, he has very less interaction with his family members.

XYZ is a student of class VII, XYZ English School. His position in the class is low. His roll number in class is 21. Before getting admission in the school in class VI, he studied in XYZ English Medium School.

His previous school authority apprises XYZ’s parents about his less interaction with teachers and other students and about his low performance in class.

Due to this reason his parents withdraw his studentship from that school and admitted him in class VI in XYZ English School. In the class room he wants to stay alone, always sits on the last bench. Even in the leisure time he uses to stay alone and does not share his food with other students.

Sometimes he does not pay attention in the classroom and he is seen to think something else. He hardly participates in extra-curricular activities. Basically, he does not show any interest to participate in any competition like games, quiz, debate, drawing competitions. He feels hesitation to participate in any competition.

Related Case Questions:

As  an  investigator,  I  have  taken  a  personal  interview  of  the  student.  I have asked him some questions related to his problems as –

  • What is the age of the student? Answer:- He is 13 years old.
  • Where does the student live? Answer:- Ward No. 4, Rangia Town
  • Do you have any brother or sister? Answer:- Yes, One brother
  • Does he have any class friend in class? Anser:- No
  • What does his father do? Answer:- Business
  • What does his mother do? Answer:- Housewife
  • Does he always come to school? Answer:- Yes
  • Does he regularly study at home? Answer:- Yes
  • What does he like except study? Answer:- He likes to play mobile/computer games
  • What kind of relation exists between him and his parents? Answer:- Good but his interaction with his parents is very low
  • Does he have any complaint about his classmates? Answer:- Yes, they are not interested to talk with him and always tease him
  • Does he has any complaint about school? Answer:- No
  • What is his favorite subject? Answer:- English
  • Does he like to talk with other people? Answer:- No, not like that
  • Why doesn’t he like to talk with others? Answer:- he doesn’t feel comfortable to talk with others
  • How does he spend his vacation time? Answer:- he likes play mobile games
  • Do your parents/teachers scold you because of your less conversation? Answer:- Yes, sometimes


From the above discussions, I have found that there are many causes of his shyness and introverted nature which hinder him in the development of his personality –

  • The feeling of inferiority complex could lead to shyness and introverted nature.
  • Lack of social skills and non-participation makes him inhabited around others and make him shy and introverted.
  • Lack of communication and friendly relation with his parents and teachers makes him shy and introverted.
  • The lack of awareness and responsibility of his parents towards him makes him shy and introverted.
  • Less expressiveness makes him shy and introverted.
  • Mental weakness may also lead to shyness and introverted nature.


  • Parents should motivate him to talk or communicate with others.
  • It is the duty of the teachers to make him feel secure during classes and teachers should encourage him to make friends with other students.
  • Parents should be  aware  of  the  behaviour  of  other  students  of  the  class towards  him.  So,  they  should  connect with  the  school  as  much  as  they can.
  • Special attention  should  be  given  to  his  mental  development  by  his parents and teachers.
  • Parents  should take  him to the psychiatrist for  his low confidence and introvert nature. Special attention  should  be  given  by  his  parents  towards  his  extra- curricular activities.
  • Teachers of the school should give special attention in some context. If he is not co-operating with teachers in class, then they should apply different methods to make him strong.
  • Sometimes remedial  classes  should  be  taken  for  him  at  school  by  the teachers.


This study is basically about a student of 13 years of age who is studying in class VII of XYZ English School. Through this study, I have tried to find out the problems that the boy is dealing with. During the four months of my internship period, I have come across about his shy and introvert nature.

From his family members I have come to know that the boy is very shy and introvert in  nature  from  his  childhood.  In  this  study,  I  have  find  out  some  possible reasons for his shy and introvert nature and also I have given some suggestions and recommendations of his problem through which he can overcome from his problem and can achieve a better future.

Emphasis – Extensive and detailed study or knowledge. Consent – Approval, support.

Assumption – A thing that is accepted as true. Apprise – Inform or notify.

Withdraw – Remove or take away.

Rationale – A set of reasons or a logical basis for a course of action or belief.


Blaike Norman,  “Designing  social  research  the  logic  of  anticipation”,

UK, Polity Press, 2000

Saikia Dr Mukl, “Action Research”, Guwahati Chitrachal Printers, 2014

“Case studies in Educational Psychology” – Frank D. Adame

So that sums up the case study report for B.ed. Hope you like it.

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The University of London B ED degree: a case study

Corporate author : unesco european centre for higher education, person as author : lawton, denis, in : higher education in europe, vii, 2, p. 9-16, language : english, language : russian, also available in : français, year of publication : 1982.


H I G H E R E D U C A T I O N IN E U R O P E is a quarterly bulletin in English, French and Russian published by the European Centre for Higher Education (CEPES) of Unesco in Bucharest, Romania. It covers problems of higher education in the Unesco European Region, which includes, besides all the countries of Europe, Canada, Israel and the United States of America. E N S E I G N E M E N T S U P E R I E U R E N E U R O P E est un bulletin publié par le Centre européen pour l'enseignement supérieur (CEPES) de l'Unesco à Bucarest (Roumanie). Il parait trimestriellement en anglais, en français et en russe. Ce bulletin traite des problèmes relatifs à l'enseignement supérieur dans la région européenne, définie par l'Unesco (l'ensemble des Etats membres d'Europe, ainsi que le Canada, les Etats-Unis d'Amérique et Israël). BblCUJEE O B P A 3 O B A H M E B E B P O R E - 6iomieTeHb EeponeücKoro uempa I 0 H E C K O no BbiciueMy o6pa3OBaHWo (CEflEC) (ByxapecT, PyivibiHun), n3flaBaeMbiíí 4 pa3a B roa Ha aHrnuticKOM, pyccKOM M 4>paHuy3CKOM n3biKax. O H nocBameH 3aflanaM M ocoöeHHOcTHM Bbicujero o6pa3OBaHMH B CTpaHax eBponeücKoro pernoHa-n/ieHax HDHecKo, a Ta«>Ke CoeanHeHHbix A M e p u K H , H3pannn M Chief Editor/Rédacteur en chef : J e a n - C l a u d e P a u v e r t Directeur CEPES Editor/Rédacteur : Alexander Prókhorov, co-editor: Wolfgang Vollmann Centre Européen pour l'Enseignement Supérieur (CEPES) 39, rue Stirbei Vodà R - 7 0 7 3 2 Bucarest Roumanie © Unesco 1982HIGHER EDUCATION IN EUROPE April - June 1982, Vol.VII, No.2 From the Editor 3 FACTS AND TRENDS Specialized Training Versus' General Education in Higher Education A Qualitative Approach to the Study of Learning 5 in Higher Education (Ference Marton) The University of London B Ed Degree: A Case Study 9 (Denis Lawton) The Relationship of General Education, and Basic and 16 Specialized Training at the Universities and Colleges of the GDR (Erwin Bendrat, Gertrude Buck-Bechler, Bernd ZinKahn) Specialized Training Versus General Education in Higher 19 Education in Norway (Johs.Sandven) Academic Attitudes Towards Basic Higher Education 25 (Jan-Erik Lane) Training of a Specialist: Optimal Models and Pragmatic 39 Solutions (I. Podlasyi) Personality Development of a Specialist in the Process of 42 Education at a Pedagogical Institute (Valentin Nikolaevich Shkurko) The First Steps in the French Higher Education System of an • 46 Educational Strategy of Tomorrow: Alternance (Bernard Liétard) GENERAL INFORMATION ON HIGHER EDUCATION New Reform and Development in Italian Universities 52 (Michael Anello) Financing University Education in Britain (T.A. Owen) 54 General System of Information on Students at Quebec University 62 (Grant Regalbuto) Academic Counselling in the Federal Republic of Germany: 68 10 Pilot Schemes Evaluated (Klaus-Dieter Grünwald) Modellversuch Hochschulpädagogische Ausbildung an der 72 Ruhr-Universität Bochum (Pilot-project on staff development at the Ruhr-Universität Bochum, FRG) (Barbara Becker) CEPES ACTIVITIES 75CALENDAR OF EVENTS (Conferences and meetings relevant to higher education to be 77 organized between August and December 1982, and in 1983) BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES TO PUBLICATIONS ON, HIGHER EDUCATION 84 -"Book Reviews - Book Notes - Other Books and Documents Received NOTES FOR CONTRIBUTORS 97 LIST OF CEPES PUBLICATIONS 100FROM THE EDITOR Terms such as specialized and general education have 'been at the forefront of educational theory ever since specialists devoted their research and experience to the problem of how to design an ideal study-course. Recent educational history has proven that there is hot a clear-cut answer and one must take into account such diverse elements as local or national characteristics, cultural phenomena,conditions of the employment market and, last but not least, the inherent structure-ofNa given subject area, before any curricular options of a general or specialized nature could be designed. The ongoing debate in this area reveals however the need to redefine and evaluate the acquisition of knowledge within the context of its non-hierarchical and indeterminate nature. In this connection, it seems that students must increasingly learn to continuously negociate frames of reference appearing as fences but called "general knowledge",- while at the same time attempting to acquire early practical, special or professional experiences. This rather artificial division between general and specialized education may seem appropriate at the time but when evaluated against the requirements of national efficiency it often appears inadequate. This issue of the Bulletin intends to provide some research, experiences and opinions related to the issue at hand with a view to inform the reader on recent trends and developments in a variety.of European countries. Ference Marton (Sweden) bases his article on research carried out amongst students and professionals to find out how they evaluate their studies and how they adjust to proposed learning material. Other research described by D. Lawton (UK) in a case study reveals, interesting experiences concerning a modular approach in teacher education. Johs Sandven (Norway) also focusses his article on the analysis of concepts such as knowledge and profession within the framework of initial university training and basic requirements in professional work. He proposes not to adopt a general -stand ,but to increase the educational function of the curricula. J.E. Lane (Sweden) reports on a recent survey carried out amongst Swedish faculty and his statistics and conclusions contain interesting data for further research. Training and employment, are the guiding features of the articles by B. Liétard (France), V.N. Shkurko (Byelorussian SSR), I. Podlasyi (Ukrainian SSR) and E. Bendrat, G. Buck-Bechler and B. Zinkahn (GDR).The chapter "Genenal Information" contains several articles by a variety of scholars including M. Anello on recent developments in Italian universities, T.A. Owen, on financing of universities in -Great Britain, G. Regalbuto on information systems on students in Quebec and K.D. Grünwald on academic counselling in the FRG. One can also find information on staff development efforts of the University of Bochum, FRG. The next issue of the Bulletin, No.3, will deal with the following theme: "The Humanism of the Contemporary University". The EditorFACTS AND TRENDS SPECIALIZED TRAINING VERSUS GENERAL EDUCATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION A QUALITATIVE APPROACH TO THE STUDY OF LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION Fevence MARTON University of Göteborg Sweden In our research group at the Institute of Education, University of Göteborg, Sweden, we have, for some years and at regular intervals, occu- pied ourselves with questions concern- ing prerequisites and effects of uni- versity studies. (Acknowledgement: the research reported here was financially supported by the Swedish National Board of Higher Edu- cation and by the Swedish Council for Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences.) Our approach to the problems can be characterized as descriptive, qua- litative, and content-oriented. This means that we ask questions of the type, "what prerequisites and what possible effects can we find and how can we best describe them?" instead of questions of the type, "to what extent do first- year students have particular prerequi- sites?" or "to what degree are particu- lar effects achieved?" or "how close is the connection between the extent to which first-year students have the pre- requisites and the degree to which the intended effects are achieved?" We do not claim that the prerequisites and the effects we describe are the only ones of interest or that they are necessarily the most interesting things that can be studied. Our starting-point is the content of the studies rather than their societal function. In our opinion, the perspective we have chosen is of interest as well as being autonomous. When we say auto- nomous, we do not mean that which is seen from this perspective is inde- pendent of what is seen from other perspectives. What we mean is that what is seen from this perspective cannot be deduced from what is seen from other perspectives. If we now turn to the question of the prerequisites for studying at the university level and their ef- fects, one notes that, in recent years, organizational questions con- cerning the university-level educa- tion system have, for obvious rea- sons, become the centre of interest. In our-research group, we have, however, concentrated on what, so to speak, flows through the organiza- tion's veins; in other words, thoughts and ideas concerning the nature of the world. We have primarily con- cerned ourselves with what the courses in certain lines of education assume the students have acquired in terms of knowledge and the nature of the change in the students to which these courses give rise. This is a field where, perhaps, far too much is taken for granted. There is actually very little systematic knowledge con- cerning more fundamental prerequi- sites. The answers to questions about prerequisites and effects are oftenformulated in administrative terms. From this perspective, prerequisites are identical to entrance require- ments [e.g. upper secondary school qualifications or at least 25 years old and a minimum of 4 years1 occupa- tional experience] and the end result of the studies is placed on an equal footing with the points or degree. Such a way of describing what (or rather who) enters the system and what emerges from it naturally serves a purpose in certain contexts. There is, however, another apparently equally concrete, but more common- sense, description of prerequisites and effects. It seems, for instance, more plausible to say that knowledge in the English language is necessary if you are going to take part in a course where a large part of the literature is in English. In the same way, what people learn during medical training or at a college of journa- lism may not seem to be particularly problematic. It seems reasonable that, in the first case, they learn how to cure the sick and that, in the second case, they learn how to handle news coverage. In our research group we try to restrict ourselves to another level of description. We do not ask a lot about what people are called (stu- dents, doctors, journalists, etc.) and neither do we study, to any great extent, what they do (underline in books*, give injections or interview people). We are mainly interested in how they think. One can, for example, ask oneself whether the courses re- quire a special way of thinking, or one can concentrate on investigating whether the courses studied result in reality being understood in dif- ferent ways, all in accordance with the orientation of the courses and their content. We want quite simply to get at prerequisites and effects of university-level studies in terms of the students' thought processes. There is an old misconception concerning questions of this type that is often brought up. This misconception is an error in thinking so that when one looks at an undivided whole from two different angles (or from two different perspectives), one imagines that in actual fact one is looking at two different things. The undivided whole in the case in ques- tion is the learning that takes place within the student. If you have this misconception, you assume that, on the one hand there exists a general abi- lity or skill and, on the other, that there are different contents to which the ability or skill is applied. Fur- thermore, it is assumed that the abi- lity or skill can be described as something that exists in the indivi- dual, something he or she can have more or less of and something that has more or less the same appearance irrespective of the content in question. Content, on the other hand, can - according to this, in our opinion, somewhat peculiar way of thinking - be characterized in terms of the books a person reads, the lectures he at- tends or the tasks he is given during the course of his education. As far as I can see, this is completely wrong. The fact is that there is not learning without content. Nor does it seem par- ticularly meaningful to think of the content of learning as printing ink on the pages of the course books. The content of learning should reasonably refer to the understood content; that is, the different conceptions people form concerning what they see, hear or read. In this way, process (what is done, that which happens) and con- tent (what is understood) form two aspects that belong together. These two aspects quite simply represent two different perspectives from which we see the process that, brings about changes in the students in the educa- tional situation. The error of con- fusing two different aspects of a phe- nomenon with two or more separate phe- nomena has led to considerably more concrete consequences than those which concern the strategy of research. Such an idea, that is as unfortunate as it is faulty, says that with the help of a form of general training in study techniques given before the actualcourses begin, it might be possible to make the students more suited to study almost any type of content. The fact is that if we do not assume that there is a general degree of study skill that the individual may or may not have and instead study dif- ferent concrete cases of the relation- ship between individuals and study situations, then certain similarities between these different relationships will emerge. In this case, we do not want to describe how individuals are. What we wish to describe is what me- thods of functioning different study situations require. We then find that in most cases what is.decisive is whether the goal-means structure in the situation can be handled. In other words, it must be realized that the , situation as such, the book one reads or the exercise one takes part in, is only a means, as it were, of finding out something about the reality behind the printed word. It is a question of focussing one's attention on a point somewhere behind that which is given at the time in question. If one focusses on the means instead of the goal, i.e. the situation or the words in the book instead of the principle or meaning they are intended to express, then the result will be that one does not un- derstand what one was intended to un- derstand, and clearly problems will arise in the study situation. The main reason for this is that very few people are able to handle large amounts of subject matter more or less at word level. And one of the distinctive fea- tures of university studies has so far been that students have had to handle large amounts of subject-matter in great chunks. This places demands on the ability to distinguish the message from the words. We can now return to the question of training in study technique. When it is general in character, i.e. without any association to any subject-matter that is of importance, there is a risk of this type of training fixing the students' attention on technical aspects. that is., on the means instead of the aim. This can result in it working against its own goal and not only showing itself to be inefficient but even damaging. The problem remains, of course, many of the people who enter a university find, for example, that their way of approaching writ- ten material does not function in the way the course requires. Some flee the situation, others change their way of studying. One of the members of our re- search group has recently completed a study which shows that university- level studies "produce" learning ability CSaljo, 1979). By this he means that people who have pursued university-level studies for some years tend to use a different approach to learning material than people who attain the same level of results in conventional aptitude tests but who have not been to a university. University graduates seem, in par- ticular, to realize that learning is something that can be done in different ways and serve different purposes. They take a detached view of the situation to a certain degree and can more or less consciously select a strategy. Learning can con- sist of acquiring a certain amount of information or preparing for an exa- mination. But "real" learning means that one changes a little bit and that one sees certain things in the world in a different way than before. As a contrast to this type of "learning ideology", there exists a conception that is most common in̂ people with little educational expe- rience. They seem to regard education as something self-evident, something that can only exist in one way. And this way means that they often "try to commit to memory". A comparison between the two groups shows that the university graduates seem to be fairly proficient at doing what they have been doing for a number of years, namely, at understanding and making use of written material.We can now turn to the other aspect which has to do with how the contents of the course studies are understood by the students. We have tried to find out what the students get out of the texts they read or the teaching to which they are exposed, by means of a large number of indivi- dual interviews, each lasting a couple of hours. Studies of this type naturally reveal problems that are not normally discovered. The fact is that everyday language is not very r.esistant to misunderstanding. We can talk for a long time with each other without discovering that, in actual fact, we are talking about completely different things. Obviously, this also applies to many teaching and examination situations. In a study of the way in which first-year students at the university function, we found, however, that there were great dif- ferences in understanding. In the first study, we used an article from a Swedish daily news- paper that discussed an organizational reform at the universities; we in- structed a number of students at the Department of Education to read it. We found that only one in six really understood what the author wanted to say and that almost a third of the group confused the point of the ar- ticle with the proposals the author argued against. As I pointed out earlier, a problem that shows up in different study situations is the difficulty in seeing the reality referred to by the written or spoken word. We often extract words and formulations without getting at the phenomenon that these words are intended to tell us some- thing about. This leads to the utili- zation of a mechanism which is, unfor- tunately, as common as it is strange. Two different sets of terms and con- ceptions are developed: one set for the study situation and another for life outside this situation. It is this, among other things, that can lead to people who have successfully managed one term of studies, in econo- mics and yet harbour what are, from an economic viewpoint, rather ingenious ideas about things that are perhaps discussed daily by the mass media. An example of this is the controversial question of tax indexation in Sweden. A measure of this type would be aimed at safeguarding income-earnings against the automatic increase in taxes as a result of inflation (due to the cha- racter of the Swedish taxation system wherein- the more you earn the greater proportion of your salary is taken as income tax). A study carried out by Dahlgren (1978), a member of our research group, showed that about two- thirds of the students of economics asked,believed that the measure would be aimed at adjusting the tax rates upwards instead of downwards. This, they thought, would be put into effect in order to secure state income from inflation. (Results of this kind may well give us food for thought: what do people really take á stand on when they take a stand?). This is the negative side. It is thus possible to reveal hidden short- comings in understanding by means of intensive studies. It is more impor- tant, however, to get at different forms of understanding. The conception sanctioned by science of a certain as- pect of reality is obviously not com- pletely absent in people; instead, they have another conception of that aspect, a conception that constitutes their own way of seeing the same thing of which the course studies contain a scientific study. As a teacher, one should obviously try to get hold of this conception and confront it with observations of reality in the hope of changing it instead of adding a new conception to exist side by side in peaceful coexistence with the old one. Any action of this sort presupposes at least two things. Firstly, the teach- ing methods must make it possible for the stude'nt's own way of understanding things to be manifested. Secondly, the teacher must be able to understand how the student thinks. The latter presup- poses that different forms of under- standing have previously beenidentified and described. As I see it, it is knowledge and insights of the very sort that could constitute an extremely signficant element in what we call pedagogical competence. [Naturally, a lot of teachers have acquired intui- tive Knowledge and understanding of this sort through their own experience.) This question obviously has re- levance for all the stages in the edu- cational system. Teaching is often viewed in a way that is very suggestive of the picture of learning to which I raised objections earlier. People are apt to assume that, on the one hand, there is some sort of general teaching skill, and, on the other, that there exists specific knowledge of subjects. A combination of, for example, a gene- ral pedagogical ability and knowledge of physics constitutes, according to this way of thinking, the pedagogical competence to teach physics. What I would like to claim with reference to this view is that the essence of peda- gogical competence does not consist of the sum of general teaching skill and subject knowledge. It is something else, a third thing: namely, insights into how the subject-matter taught is usually understood by the students. Similarly, when it comes to des- cribing the long-term effects of edu- cation, one should, in our opinion, take into consideration how, and to what extent, university-level studies influence the individual's way of per- ceiving the world around him. To the extent that educational experiences not only influence the way in which a per- son perceives his "professional reality", but also how he perceives his "every- day reality", it can be said that his studies have had a radical effect. Such a perspective can sometimes lead to the emergence of paradoxical results; for instance, a person who learns to take several factors into considera- tion at the same time or a person who becomes aware of the fact that "every- thing hangs together" may feel that his readiness for saying how things really are has become less than it was at the beginning of his studies. REFERENCES: DAHLGREN, L.O. Effects of university education on the conception of reality. Paper presented at the Fourth International Conference on Improving University Teaching. July 26-29, 197B, Aachen, F.R. Germany. SALJO, R. Educational experience and learning performance: some • observations. Paper presented at the 3rd EARDHE Congress, January 2-6, 1979, Klagenfurt. THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON B ED DEGREE: A CASE STUDY Denis LAWTON Institute of Education University of London United Kingdom Part of the background to teacher education in the UK is the existence of two major ideas in curri- culum studies. The first is concerned with the need for planning in educa- tion. The second view is that plan- ning is impossible because no two human beings are the same so what suits one individual does not meet the needs of another. A variant of this view (more often applied to schools than to teacher education) is that of some "child centred" theo- rists who suggest that since experts cannot justify what they would like to impose on the young, then it is more acceptable to allow children to choose their own curricula. Ilichael Eraut C1976) referred to these two views as a choice of models: "the rational curriculum plan- ning model or the anti-rational.anti-curriculum, anti-planning, anti-model". But as with most dichotomies of this kind, the sensible choice is not between polar opposites, but between versions of the middle ground. It is precisely this kind of middle ground theory that is so often lack- ing in teacher education. A further difficulty is that as Browne (1968) has pointed out, teacher education is an uncomfortable mixture of "vocational" and "purely educative" purposes. They need not conflict, but they often do. The "initial" B Ed in particular faces that problem, but usually fails to solve it. All too often, students [and their teachers) see no connec- tion at all between, say, the aca- demic history being studied as a "main subject" and the task of teach- ing history or social studies to primary school children. Before the Second World War, the dominant pattern of curriculum in secondary schools was a planned course with limited choice. It was teacher-centred rather than child- centred. Curriculum planners of the day were confident that they knew what constituted a well balanced curriculum and encapsulated this into an examination structure. Public examinations (School Certificate and Matriculation in particular), were "group examinations" - that is, in order to pass a pupil had to reach the required standard in at least five subjects. Schools (and the offi- cial Secondary Regulations) took it for granted that the curriculum should include mathematics, English, science of some kind and a second language; within each subject little, if any, choice was possible. One of the declared advantages of the public examinations system was that it en- sured that pupils covered the subject content adequately. The same confi- dence in planning was also typical of higher education and teacher training. At training colleges for teachers, the traditional pattern for a Certificate in Education was a course consisting of one main subject (some- times two) plus education. The course in Education was a broadly based induc- tion into educational "principles and practice" (including teaching expe- riences in schools). Little choice was offered - lecturers knew best. After the 1939 to 1945 war, the pendulum swung towards student choice. In primary schools the "integrated day" based on children following their own interests became fashionable. In sec- ondary schools, after 1950-51, the group of five subject requirement for the School Certificate was replaced by the single subject General Certificate of Education Ordinary Level : any number of subjects in any combination could earn a certificate; the most common form of curriculum planning (or non - planning) for the 14 to 16 years old pupils became a cafeteria style option system which has recently been criti- cised by Her Majesty's Inspectors in Curriculum 11-16 (1977) and Aspects of Secondary Education (1979). The new fashion took a little longer to reach higher education and teacher training, but eventually it came with a vengeance. In higher educa- tion, science degrees in particular and, to some extent, social science degrees, were organized into modules or course units so that students could choose what they wanted to study with much less imposed structure than in conventional degrees. The 1972 White Paper in Edu- cation ("Education - A Framework for Expansion") encouraged, perhaps even demanded, the spread of this trend into teacher education. A three year B Ed (Ordinary) course and a four year B Ed (Honours) course were to be implemented. The three year courses "would be so de- signed that the same units could be used for non-educational awards as well as B Ed degrees. None of the problems of modular courses - especially the problem of using modules for professional awards - were foreseen, only the supposed 10advantages. No account seemed to be taken of the amount of time and ef- fort needed in order to restructure existing courses in unit form, or to plan new courses. But institutions con- cerned with teacher education duti- fully began to make plans in accord- ance with the 1972 White Paper. From 1972 onwards the Council for National Academic Awards (CNAA) became the major institution concerned with modular or unit structure courses. By 1974, a paper was produced to give guidance to institutions contemplat- ing such courses. (Reflections on the Design of Modular Courses3 CNAA3 May 1974). The benefits claimed for modu- lar degrees included the following: 1. The student is involved in planning his own degree from the beginning . 2. During the course, he can change his mind fairly easily either be- cause his interests change or he plans a different career. His time is not "wasted". 3. Broad and narrow interests can be catered for [or shallow and deep interests). 4. Students may be encouraged, to study "new" subjects - that is, subjects not taken for their GCE "A" level or not available at "A" level. 5. Student motivation is improved partly because the student chooses more, and partly because each unit is shaped separately and the stu- dent gets regular feedback. 6. The objectives of separate units can be more easily specified than the objectives for whole degree programmes. 7. Programmes can be more easily changed and brought up to date. These advantages might be summed up in terms of higher student motiva- tion and greater flexibility. But we also have to ask whether there are other ways of achieving good stu- dent motivation, and whether unre- stricted flexibility is always de- sirable. One of the lessons learned with difficulty from Curriculum Studies is that a pattern which works well in one area of the curriculum or one kind of award, does not ne- cessarily possess the same advantages for all other areas or all other sub- jects. Modular degrees may have certain advantages in science courses, but, in retrospect, it is doubtful whether they should have been at- tempted for professional awards in education. The University of London accepted in principle the idea of a modular degree soon after the 1972 White Paper. A University committee suggested that there would be two types of study: (a) subjects other than education, and (b) Educational Theory and Practice. (b) was further sub-divided according to a new categorisation which in- fluenced the pattern of the degree - education units were eventually numbered and grouped in five cate- gories. ED1 "current branches" e.g. Philosophy of Education History of Education ED2 interdisciplinary fields e.g. Moral Education ED3 Education in relation to an age group or subject area e.g. teaching history in the primary school ED4 further study of a subject in its educational context. (The distinction between ED3 and ED4 was never completely re- solved and proved a constant source of disputation). 11ED5 supervised teaching practice The committee also established the general requirements for B Ed de- grees incorporating the London rules for unit structured degrees and, to some extent, moulding them to the new needs. For a B Ed Ordinary degree the structure required students to com- plete at least nine units (and satis- fy examiners in at least eight) nor- mally over a three year period. At least five of the nine units should be in education. Certain educa- tion units would be designated, including supervised teaching prac- tice. For the four year B Ed Honours degree, the candidate would be re- quired to complete at least 12 units (and satisfy examiners in 11); 6 of the 12 would be in education; some education units would be designated including supervised teaching prac- tice. It was also proposed that the non-education units in the B Ed pro- grammes could be used for B Se and BA degrees, so that colleges could "diversify" and cease to be "teacher training monotechnics". The structure of these degrees would also involve taking at least nine units and passing, at least eight. An optimistic assump- tion held by a large number of mem- bers of staff of the University and of the colleges seemed to be that if a college offered a B Ed, roughly 50% education and 50% English, and also a B Ed roughly 50% education and 50% History, why not a BA 50% English and 50% History using the existing courses? The optimists were eventually disappointed - the new structure was much more complicated and arguments about "depth" and "coherence" also loomed large. The simplistic educa- tional thinking of the White Paper was, to some extent, confounded by the naive optimism of those involved in planning the new degree. The University of London Insti- tute of Education was burdened with the task of putting into operation this complex set of requirements. A committee for university awards was created with various working parties. One of the most important functions of this working party was to convert the general requirements into more detailed guidelines and to look at the college proposals. One interesting fact soon emerged from these discussions: the attitudes of Boards of Studies ranged from enthusiastic support for student choice and flexibility to complete horror at the idea of fragmentation and inconherence. Different curriculum ideologies were operating below or above the surface of discussions, and there was an interesting correlation between attitudes and the subject in- volved. In general, Boards of Studies in science subjects were much more sympathetic (even enthusiastic) about the structure; Faculty of Arts Boards of Studies, on the other hand, were extremely suspicious of the danger of students collecting isolated units which did not make sense as a whole and which, they feared, would by no means, approximate to the "depth" of traditional single subject honours de- gree work. One of the interesting aspects of Curriculum Studies is that anyone teaching at any level (including uni- versity degrees) has theories about the structure of knowledge and knowledge acquisition often without realising it. They may be exponents of various theo- retical views of curriculum without realising it. English specialists, for example, seemed to be working with a "cumulative enrichment model" in plan- ning their courses. Their claim seemed to be that it would be unfair to examine a student's work on, say, Chaucer and Spenser at the end of the first year of a three year course because the appre- ciation of that kind of literature would 12be enhanced by the enrichment afforded by years 2 and 3. Philosophers, on the other hand, although having very strong objections to the unit structure on grounds which seemed superficially similar to English professors were, in fact, very differ- ent. Philosophers put forward the "terminal illumination model". Accord- ing to the philosophers, it was no use testing a student at the end of Year 1 on the work he had done on a unit on Plato (as was normally required by the unit regulations); a student might think he had read and understood Plato, but he will not really have understood it until, he has done other courses (perhaps Kant and epistemology) in the third year. In that model, a well planned course is deliberately designed to come together and make sense only at the end. To cut it up into units and examine it year by year (or worse still, term by term) defeats the whole purpose of planning a good degree programme. It may be useful at this point for us to examine some of the disadvantages of modular degrees. 1. Integrity or subject unity It is often said that courses planned as a whole possess a kind of integrity or unity which is impossible to achieve with a completely free choice of units - except by luck. Conventional English and philosophy honours courses, for example, are said to have the ad- vantages of "integrity", and those who have taught such programmes object to the cafeteria style of degree programme structure. It is important to note, however, that integrity or "unity" courses rarely exist in a pure form. Most English and Philosophy courses permit options even if some papers are compulsory. Not many university teachers would claim to know exactly what combination of courses would be best for everyone, and some choice is usually regarded as desirable. Thus "terminal illumination" is not identical for all students; different kinds of enrichment are possible. The London B Ed solution to that problem - that is how to cater for "terminal illumination" rather than annual checking-in - was to use the unit structure simply as an accounting system and to allow all the philosophy units, for example, to be planned as a single course and examined at the end. By this arrange- ment the student might do six units in philosophy which would all be examined at the end of the three year course; the annual unit assessment would be used as a means of indicat- ing satisfactory work so far, but the only marks which would count towards honours would be left until the end of the final year. In practice, however, it proved difficult to ope- rate that system. Annual accounting became more and more important and some loss of unity was undoubtedly a feature of the B Ed programmes. The intention was to use the unit struc- ture rather than be dominated by it. but in practice it was difficult to overcome the demands of the structure. 2. Sequence Another disadvantage of allow- ing unlimited freedom in the choice of units is that there may be - in some subjects at least - some ad- . vantage in presenting knowledge in a particular order. One of the basic principles of curriculum planning is that if conventionally a course con- sists of modules 'x', 'y' and 'z', taught in that order, it might be useful to apply a "shuffle test" and try teaching 'y1, 'x' and 'z'. If it makes no difference at all, perhaps it should! In other words, we should always be on the lookout, in curri- culum planning, for better sequence. This does clearly differ from one subject to another, but in a B Ed degree involving mathematics and physics, for example, it might well be an advantage to insist on some kinds of mathematics units preceding some kinds of physics units. This is surely 13simply good advice rather than an enfringment of a student's liberty. The London structure attempted to deal with this problem in two ways: 1. designating some units as not counting towards honours (A units] and others as honours units (B units] with the requirement that certain A units preceded certain B units. 2. Pre-requisite units were designated for some courses - for example, a physics unit might have the pre- requisite mathematics units prespe- cified on the course description form. In practice, however, it proved to be extremely difficult to supervise student choice in that way. The cafe- teria ethos tended to dominate the structure at the cost of sequence and coherence. 3. Incveasing Complexity Another kind of disadvantage of the free choice system is that stu- dents may be tempted by interesting and supposedly "relevant" courses, before they possess an adequate intel- lectual training to deal with them in anything but a superficial way. Many interdisciplinary courses fall into this category. In some cases, it would have been preferable for students to study the disciplines before making them interdisciplinary, but this again proved to be difficult to control. 4. Coherence A good deal of the objections to modular degrees can be summed up as "lack of coherence". There is some overlap here with objection 1 above - i.e. the integrity or course unity argument. But this category is more complicated and goes much further than category 1. Whereas we might talk about the desirability of course unity in a B Ed course («.g. six edu- cation units plus six English units], we also have to think in terms of, say, a B Ed Honours programme with patterns such as six Education units, four History units, and two units of Reli- gious Studies. We then have to ask a series of questions which might be called questions of coherence^ for example: (a] does the collection as a whole make sense? (Is it more than a series of trivial and superficial bits of knowledge loosely strung together?]. Cb] Do the four History units add to a reasonable course in themselves? Cc] Do they make sense in the context of a B Ed degree? Cd] Do they really add anything to the understanding of the two units'in Religious Studies? We would then ask the same ques- tions for the (non-compulsory] educa- tion units and the Religious Studies units. In other words, looking at a degree programme of that kind is an extremely complex, time-consuming and expert„activity. In the event, the committees had neither the time nor, sometimes, the expertise to make adequate judgements about either of these two kinds of reccommendation. It proved extremely dif- ficult to establish criteria for cohe- rence and the practice grew of looking (briefly] at each programme on a purely ad hoc basis. Most programmes were passed unless specific objections on grounds of incoherence or overlap of material were strongly established. Even if it had been possible to establish clear principles or criteria on such questions of coherence, it would have been extremely difficult to have "policed" the system. Once again, the ethos of the cafeteria tended to domi- nate. This London episode illustrates, first', the dangers resulting from the lack of national planning, and, second. 14institutional failure to cope with innovation. The lack of national plan- ning was related to the failure to examine teacher training in its cultural context - there was no ana- lysis of the changing role of the teacher, changing curriculum, the changing patterns of authority in our schools. The only guiding principle was the dislike of monotechnic insti- tutions or the positive desire for teachers to be taught side by side with non-teachers. Perhaps more important than that principle was the clear indication that there would soon be an over-supply of teachers and colleges of Education would have to become "diver- sified", that is, to offer non-teaching degrees as well as teacher training. At the institutional level, there was lack of time and foresight to an- ticipate and obviate problems. This might also be described as a lack of "cultural" analysis at the level of the institution - that is, the values and ideologies of university profes- sors were insufficiently taken into account as well as the difficulties of college staff in role adaption. The latter point was of extreme importance - in many cases, good grammar school history teachers, for example, having successfully made the transition to becoming an expert in history "method", now find it necessary to make another role switch and teach history at uni- versity honours degree level. It was not surprising that: many of them were regarded as having failed in making this adjustment. The new B Ed structure was established in London in 1975, with almost indecent haste. Haste was neces- sary, however, since any colleges which were not in at the start would inevi- tably suffer problems of recruitment. After a series of visits in 1974-5 by Boards of Studies to colleges, the Uni- versity agreed to give provisional va- lidation to the awards with a review after four years. By the time of the 1979 review, however, the financial climate had considerably deteriorated and the University then decided that it could not devote the necessary resources to this aspect of higher education in the future. It was de- cided that colleges should be en- couraged to seek validation else- where, and that the last date of entry for college students to London B Ed and- other awards would be 1983. The experiment was left in- complete. The signs are, however, that had the B Ed degree continued it would have become much less cafe- teria style and more controlled in the interests of professional (and other) requirements. Attempts were already in progress to work out what all teachers ought to know about educational theory, for example. There is no reason to believe that B Ed degrees elsewhere have solved the problems that remained unsolved or only partially solved in London. REFERENCES Browne, J.B. and Skillbeck, M. (19B8) "The Balance of Studies in Col- leges of Education". In: M.Golby, et al.. Curriculum Design (Croom Helm), 1975. Eraut, M. "Some Perspectives on Curriculum Development in Teacher Education" Education for Teaching 99, 1976. Evans, N. The In-Servi,ce B.Ed: A Report to the DES. Mirneo, Cambridge Institute of Education, 1980. D.E.S. Curriculum 11-16 H.M.S.O., 1977. D.E.S. Aspects of Secondary Education H.M.S.O., 1979. D.E.S. Education:.A Framework for Expansion H.M.S.O., 1972. 15D.E.S. [James Report] Teacher Education and Training, H.M.S.O., 1972. Lawton, D. "The London B.Ed." Paper presented to the Standing Conference on Studies in Education, Mimeo, 1974. Pring, R. Know Ledge and Schooling Open BooKs, 1976. Sockett, H. Designing the Curriculum Open Books* 1976. C.N.A.A. Reflections on the Design of Modular Courses, May 1974. THE RELATIONSHIP OF GENERAL EDUCATION/ AND BASIC AND SPECIALIZED TRAINING AT THE UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES OF THE GDR Erwin BENDEAT Gertrude BUCK-BECHLER Bernd ZINKAHN Members of Zentralinstitut für Hochschulbildung, Berlin, GDR The integrated socialist edu- cational system of the GDR pays great attention to the relationship between general education and trade and pro- fessional education with a view to exploiting the great wealth of the overall development of the persona- lity. We comprehend general education as the sphere of education which serves the overall development of the personality and which, at the same time, constitutes the basis for the regulation of relations among men. All young GDR citizens attend the General 10-class Polytechnical School where they receive this general edu- cation. Trade and professional education refers to that education which pre- pares a person for a career in the labour force and which ensures a fur- ther increase in knowledge of the society. The admission to a university or a college is one of the opportuni- ties provided for the young people to enable them to acquire a trade or professional education. Admission is based on passing the Abitur (high school leaving certificate). In this process of trade and professional education there is a further subdivision into basic and specialized training. The basic train- ing lays the foundation for flexibility in trade and professional life and for command of the processes of trade and professional mobility. There is a very close interrelation between the elements of basic training and the elements of general education. There is occasionnally an overlapping of these elements and some reciprocal fertilization. Specialized training lays the foundation for the work in a special trade or profession (which is not equal to job-training). Studies at the universities and colleges should, therefore, include proportioned amounts of professional training (basic and specialized educa- tion), and general education. Basically, there is an attempt to integrate education leading to the practice of a profession with an abi- lity to do independent scientific work. "Social, scientific and technical progress entails the need to train graduates with a sound basic knowledge being able rapidly to adapt to new trends. This requires rousing their capability and readiness independently to acquire knowledge also after the completion of their studies and to 16develop political responsibility for the whole in their way of thinking and acting. This implies an increase in the sig- nificance of a broad and sound theore- tical basic training in connection with an education based on scientific methods and the acquisition of sound technical knowledge in the future sphere of activity". (1/p.369). In implementing such a concept one has to distinguish three main integral parts with regard to the edu- cational contents of the university studies: (2) 1. The admission to a university or a college of the GDR presupposes a thorough general education. The young people who apply for admission to a university fulfil, the necessary re- quirements for taking up their studies by acquiring the matriculation stan- dard. The universities and colleges also offer the young students the op- portunity to further deepen and extend their general education during their studies. A manifestation of the continued general education that occurs in the universities and colleges is the com- pulsory courses that students must take while enrolled which include social sciences, two foreign languages and sports. In addition, the universities and colleges offer a wide range of op- tional general and scientific lectures in the evening. The youth association and other social organizations also share in the general education of the students by organizing social and cultural activities. 2. The basic training imparted within the framework of university studies has an important function in the deepening of general education. At the same time it assumes the important function of an intermediary between general and specialized training. A sound basic training, on the one hand, presupposes a high general education. Yet, on the other hand, a high standard in trade and professional training is not possible without a sound basic training« This reciprocal relationship and interdependence not only influences the training at the universities and colleges, but also the permanent further education of university graduates. The basic training at the uni- versities and colleges includes disciplines, such as mathematics, natural sciences, technical and so- cial sciences, whose study lays the foundation for professional knowledge and skills. It is important to impart the basic structures of knowledge, as well as basic methods and tech- nologies which enable, permanent continuation of the process of learning and which facilitate creat- ive thinking. The basic training for elec- trical engineers, for instance, includes the following subjects: - socialist industrial management, law, science of labour; - fundamentals of mathematics and cybernetics which includes the study of mathematics, electronic data processing, systems analysis and cybernetics; - fundamentals of mathematics and technology which include the study of experimental physics, funda- mentals of mechanics, fundamentals of electrical engineering, electri- cal metrology, field theory, tech- nical mechanics and fundamentals of electronics; - constructive-technological funda- mentals which includes the study of materials, elements of construc- tion, manufacturing processes and design of manufacturing processes. C3/p.2). The proportion of basic train- ing in higher education averages 45%. Basic training is continued and 17consolidated in specialized training in accordance with the different professional profiles as for example, in the subjects of information tech- nique, electronics engineering and hardware. 3. The specialized training at universities and colleges is com- prised of such lectures, seminars, etc. which provide for direct prepa- ration for the future tasks in pro- fessional practice and which thus de- velop future specialists. The propor- tion of specialized training in uni- versity training on the whole ave- rages 35%. In characterizing the above - described three main integral parts of the contents of training at uni- versities and colleges, their inter- relationships become evident. There can be no "fixed" and unchanging relationship between these three types of education, since that rela- tionship evolves with economic, political and scientific change. The practical implementation of this relationship starts with the planning of the curriculum by the faculty. The following principles are observed in this context: - Both the relationship of general and professional education, as well as the proportions between basic and specialized training should be determined in conformity with the specific features of the particular field. This presupposes a precise description of the field, the sti- pulated degree of flexibility at which the studies are aimed and the determination of the relationship [contents, time, period, arrange- ment) between training and further education. The arrangement and succession of the respective contents of studies is decisive in the implementation of a definite relationship between general and specialized education. The Chamber of Technology, scientific associations, the universi- ties and colleges, institutes of fur- ther education of the enterprises, etc., which have been developed in the GDR in the past fifteen years have all been involved in the development of a com- prehensive offering of further educa- tional opportunities.These opportuni- ties provide specialized education and have expanded considerably over the past few years. The number of par- ticipants in long-and-short term forms of further education at the GDR uni- versities and colleges nearly approxi- mates that of the newly admitted full- time students. The development of the relation- ship between basic and specialized training is also a matter of concern in the field of further education. It is necessary to overcome traditional views which hold that the function of further education is to disseminate narrow specialized knowledge. There are numerous examples where the emer- . gence of new scientific knowlege about society, nature or technology, has led to new theoretical basic knowledge which requires new basic knowledge of the specialists in science and techno- logy. Professional further education at universities, colleges and trade schools is charged with the important task of imparting this new basic know- ledge in special courses or of combin- ing it with the dissemination of specialized knowledge. In the GDR, university training is aimed at developing a high flexi- bility in graduates. That is why great importance is placed on the dissemina- tion of new specialized knowledge in the course of the professional career of the specialists in science. Further education is based on theoretical and methodical basic knowledge which is related to practice and which has been imparted in the course of .training. It should ensure a variety of opportu- nities for specialization which meet the numerous and varied demands on the practical work of the specialists. 18Only part of these demands will be stable for a longer period. In practice, a considerable pro- portion of the requirements for specia- lization will change rapidly. New trends of specialization are constantly coming into existence, while others de- crease in importance or become, in due course, an integral part of basic knowledge. If further education wants to cope with these various has to maintain two distinct educational programmes: complex long-term post- graduate studies and short courses with detailed curricula. The short courses are very flexible with regard to their contents, and are basically aimed at the rapid solution of educa- tional demands. That is why the propor- tion of specialized Knowledge in these courses will be relatively higher in comparison with the complex, long-term postgraduate studies. In view of the differentiated course offerings for further education, both with regard to their trends, and their proportion of basic and specialized Knowledge, these offerings for further education can also increasingly be taKen into consi- deration in the preparation of the con- tents of the training. This can be done by indicating those postgraduate re- quirements for specialization in the respective fields that are to be inte- • grated into further education for im- portant areas of employment of the gra- duates. Such a type of further educa- tion provided for at the universities and colleges will, in the future, in- crease in importance and can already be conceived as part of the specialized training of the graduates from univer- sities and trade schools. REFERENCES 1. Beschluss des Politbüros des Zentral- Kommitees der Sozialistischen Ein- heitspartei Deutschlands vom 8. März 1980: "Aufgaben der Universitäten und Hochschulen in der entwickelten sozialistischen Gesellschaft". (Decision of the Politbüro of the Central Committee of the Unified Socialist Party,8.3. 1980: "Tasks of the universities and higher colleges in the developed social- ist society"). In: V. Hochschul- Konferenz der Deutschen DemoKra- tischen RepubliK, 4. und 5. Septem- ber 1980, ProtoKoll. Published by: Ministerrat der DDR, Ministe- rium für Hoch-und Fachschulwesen 2. Compare with: "Das Hochschulwesen der DDR, ein Überblick'1'/Higher education in the GDR, a survey/. Published by Institut für Hochschulbildung. Director: Hans-Jürgen Schulz. VEB Verlag der Wissenschaften, Berlin 1980. [Specially chapter: goal, content and form of studies, p. 84-107) 3. Studienplan für die Grundstudien- richtung EleKtroingenieurwesen zur Ausbildung an Universitäten und Hochschulen der DDR, Berlin 1976 (In der DDR gibt es für alle Grundstudienrichtungen verbindliche Studienpläne). (Study-plan for the basic course electro-engineering at the universities and higher colleges of the GDR, Berlin 1976. In the GDR there are compulsory study-plans for all basic courses). SPECIALIZED TRAINING VERSUS GENERAL EDUCATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION IN NORWAY Johs. SANDVEN Professor at University of Oslo, Norway INTRODUCTION In the booK "Higher Education in Western Europe and North America" published in 1979 by the Council for European Studies, Columbia University, the functions of the university are 19considered from four different angles CD: 1. Mediation of existing Knowledge and culture. 2. Research and generation of new knowledge. 3. Professional education. 4. Service in relation to society. It will probably be generally agreed that all of these functions are of concern to a university in some form or other. At the same time there will be differences of opinion with regard to where the emphasis should be placed. Thus, conceptions have varied considerably regarding the role of the university in the mediation of existing knowledge and culture on the one hand, and in pro- fessional education on the other. John Henry Newman, who in 1852 presented his book "The Idea of a University", thus, strongly maintained that the university is "a place of teaching universal knowledge" (2). The main task should be the mediation of uni- versal knowledge. Emphasizing liberal education or general education, his aim was "the educated gentleman". This point of view has exerted an influence on the development of the university also in our present century. Some people have seen a danger in the constantly increasing attention which education for pro- fessional work has attracted and have warned against this. In his book "Mission of the University" from the nineteen fourties, José Ortega y Gasset contended that the universities had concentrated on scientific re- search and education for different professions to such an extent that their fundamental task, the mediation of culture, had not been attended to as it should C3J. VARIATIONS IN THE DEMAND FOR SPECIALIZATION It is difficult, however, to discuss this problem of emphasis in general terms, with intent to reach conclusions valid for all the different branches or faculties of the univer- sity. True enough, the faculties have as their common task both to mediate knowledge and culture, and to prepare for future professional work in society, but the subjects and faculties vary considerably in their traditional func- tions and in the degree to which they have been shaped by history. They also differ in the extent to which it is their duty, or part of their duty, to focus on the cultural heritage in their educational work or in their scientific efforts. Very important, too, is the fact that the professions in the various fields of work differ in the degree to which they call for knowledge of a general character or for a more spe- cialized knowledge. Thus, for example, preparation for professional work in dental medicine is bound to require specialized training in a much greater measure than preparation for work in the area of teaching. This variation in specificity or generality in the re- quirements of qualification in the different professional fields is a matter which will have to influence the structuring of the studies. Another influencing factor is the composition of the student groups commonly admitted to study in the different faculties. They may differ considerably in the degree to which they are determined in their preferences or aspirations for future work. Those who tend to keep their minds open in this matter are probably often to be found in the faculty of letters or in the social science faculty or maybe in the natural science faculty. It is evi- dent that uncertainty on the part of the students with respect to their future professional track will make for a situation where development from a general to a more specialized education is hampered. To combine specialization with the desire to keep an open road to the future is bound to be difficult, 20and this difficulty is probably one of the main reasons that many of our stu- dies still have a rather general struc- ture and only to a moderate degree are related to professional work. SPECIALIZED OR GENERAL - THE CONCEPTS SEEN IN RELATION TO THE DEMAND FOR RELEVANCE It may also be argued that, in a time of rapid change, the prediction of requirements in professional work in the.future is hazardous, and that the best alternative in such a situa- tion perhaps may be not to be special- ized and detailed in studies, but to emphasize general characteristics. This, of course, is an argument that carries considerable weight. A crucial question in this connection is what the concepts involved, specialized and general, actually mean in this context. A programme of study may be general as seen from a historic and scientific point of view or it may be general as considered in the light of the require- ments in the profession. In the former case, the programme will cover major characteristics in the field histori- cally and scientifically considered, whereas, in the latter case, the inten- tion is to cover or relate to presumedly main and persistent characteristics or requirements of the profession in question. In both of these cases the term general may be used. But the content of the concept in the latter case will not, be the same as in the former. Thus, the terms specialized and general may be used with different frames of reference. Whether programmes of study are related to any definite future type of work or not, they may obviously differ in their composition, in among other things, the degree to which they emphasize what is detailed and specialized, or alternatively what has a general character. In recent decades there has been a cry for relevance in studies. This concept of relevance imDlies that the studies are experienced as meaning- ful by the students, in relation to their professional plan for the future or in relation to their back- ground of experiences, their prepared- ness and needs as felt at the time of study. Probably it is correct to say that the demand for a higher de- gree of relevance has had a general character, in the sense that it, in some measure, has been directed towards studies in all faculties and also in the sense that it has included the professional element as well as the personal one. It may be stated too that the demand, on the whole, has been justi- fied, though not to the same extent in all cases. In spite of the fact that the problem of relevance in some form or other has been on the agenda in the universities, so to speak, continuously in the post-war period, and that changes from time to time have been made, it is obvious that university studies still, in many cases, are far from being acceptable as relevant. In particular, this is the case with studies in the facul- ties which have the task of preparing students for careers in teaching. UNIVERSITY STUDIES IN RELATION TO THE CAREER OF TEACHING As far as Norway is concerned, it is probably still true that most of studies intended to prepare one for teaching are structured and taught primarily on the basis of an historic and scientific conception, and only to a minor degree with the conscious concern about the needs likely to arise in the future profession. As already suggested, the reasons for this are many, one of them being the multi-faceted functions of the facul- ties concerned; another one the vacillation among many of the students concerning their future course. Since it is in the teaching 21profession that the problem of rele- vance seems to be most obvious, we shall focus on this aspect. We shall relate our discussion to Norway, with a particular view to the efforts which have been made to batter meet future career needs. Traditionally, in Norway, a distinction has been made between teaching in the compulsory school and teaching in the secondary school. Education for teaching in the com- pulsory school has, in the main, been the task of the teacher training col- leges, whereas preparation for teach- ing in the secondary school has been left to the universities. It is a common opinion that the training col- leges, on the whole, have been goal- directed in their efforts and have tried consciously to prepare their students for future work in schools. On the other hand, the universities have been historically and scientifi- cally oriented and have seen it as their primary task to educate for knowledge and understanding in the subjects. This subject related edu- cation lasts for 4 to 5 years for a lower degree and for 6 to 7 years for a higher degree, and pedagogical training, lasting for half a year, has been required for those going to teach in school. EFFORTS TO OBTAIN A HIGHER DEGREE OF RELEVANCE In recent decades it has been pointed out time and again that the studies, as they are organized, do not turn the minds of the students in sufficient degree to their future profession, and that the specific training directed towards work in school is inadequate in scope and depth. In the sixties, plans for ex- tension-of the educational training, theory and practice, were intensively discussed. The department of educa- tion and the University in Oslo were, in principle, agreed that such an extension was needed, and a commis- sion appointed by the Senate of the University worked out a detailed plan for an educational training lasting for one year (4), Howevsr, those who were engaged in the training as it existed, and likewise the organization of teach- ers in the secondary school, wanted a training model consisting of half a year at the University and, in addition, a year of practice in school under the guidance of an experienced teacher. Due to the clash of the viewpoints, no ex- tension was accomplished. Discussion concerning the rela- tion between university studies and the profession of teaching continued in the seventies. It was felt increasing- ly that something ought to be done in order to bring about an organization of the studies that would be better adapted to the students' future work. The problem of relevance in this connection has two aspects: on the one hand, it was to do with the orienta- tion and composition of the studies in the different subjects, on the other, it concerns the scope and structuring of the educational training as such. An encouraging development during the seventies was a growing interest in the former of these aspects. At various institutions, an effort was made to in- clude elements relating to actual work in school in the subject studies. The term subject didactics ("fagdidak- tikk") became the word commonly used to indicate the direction of these efforts. As a result of this activity, the National Council for Teacher Educa- tion ("Laeverutdanningsvâdet") appointed a committee to elucidate the problem of subject didactics in the studies at the universities with a view, among other things,to content and scope. Another committee, appointed by this Council, got the task of discussing principles for organization and content of a one year, practical-educational training. While agreement existed concerning the need for greater emphasis on re- quirements in future work and, that 22part of this should taKe place in, or alongside, the subject studies, there were still differences of opinion as to whether the final educational train- ing should continue as a half year study or be extended to a one year study. While the Council, mentioned above, seemed to favour the latter al- ternative, a national school committee recommended the former. DEVELOPMENTAL WORK AT THE UNIVERSITIES The universities themselves have also appointed committees to elucidate the problem in question. This applies to all our four universities, situated in Oslo, Bergen, Trondheim and Tromsri, respectively. All committee statements originating at the universities have recommended a strengthening of the edu- cational component seen as a whole and that this should be brought about in or alongside the subject studies, keeping the final educational training as a half year study. There are many, varied opinions regarding the scope, content and orga- nization of the contemplated extension in or alongside the subject studies. Some of the proposals recommend that the educational study to go with the subject studies should have a scope corresponding to half a year so that it, together with the final half year training, make up an educational total of one year. Others are not inclined to extend to this degree. Even though, at the moment, it is somewhat unclear what the future model will be, it seems evident that university studies likely to recruit for future work in school will be af- fected by the discussion and thinking which have taken place. In some mea- sure, the subject studies themselves will be more consciously related to an- ticipated professional work. Problems likely to arise in such future work will be identified and discussed, part- ly in the subject studies themselves, partly in educational courses to go with these and finally in the educa- tional, half year study rounding off the students' education. A decision, in principle, to this effect, has already been made here and at the University of Trondheim, in the form of half a year of educational study to go with the subject studies and half a year at the end. A model like this or a modification of it will also most likely be adopted by the other universities. It should be mentioned that experiments along these lines have started already in some of the sub- jects, such as, typically, school subjects in the natural science area and in history in the area of the humanities. At the natural science faculty of the University of Oslo, some special school directed courses are offered to the students. Like- wise, a counselling service intended for teachers in the secondary school is organized at this faculty. CAUSATIVE FACTORS IN THE REORGANIZATION OF THINKING There are many reasons for the development which has taken place. During the post-war period, and in particular during the last two de- cades, public debate and attention have, in large measure, been directed to conditions in society and to the functioning of different public institutions in relation to these con- ditions. This critical scrutiny has been directed towards the universi- ties as well and has gradually in- fluenced their way of thinking and their conception of their role in relation to society. Along with this development, we have seen the establishment and growth of the social sciences as im- portant fields of activity, even- tually organized in faculties of their own. A notable contributing factor, as far as preparation for teaching is concerned, is, undoubtedly, also that the science of pedagogy became 23established as an area of research and a subject of study in its own right; The traditional subject stu- dies of the university could hardly avoid being influenced by these deve- lopmental trends. As far as Norway is concerned, it is worth mentioning too that, during the sixties and seventies, we experienced a strong demand for strengthening of the cultural and educational opportunities around in the various districts in the country, a demand which gradually led to the establishment of a considerable num- ber of so-called-regional colleges (distriktsh^gskoler). As these col- leges made efforts to relate their work to requirements in their local areas, and to some extent also took up studies traditionally placed at the universities, the universities were required to reconsider their task and function. An indication that the univer- sities, more consciously than before, have turned their attention to their educative task is the fact that the Norwegian University Council, early in the seventies, appointed a perma- nent commission for university educa- tion and that this commission, later in the seventies, with the consent of the Council, established a quar- terly journal for university educa- tion, a journal which is regularly published and sent free of charge to all university teachers. Another indication of attention in this direction is that the Univer- sity Council recently decided to establish a national study plan com- mission (fagplanutvalg) with the task of effecting contact between the uni- versity sector and the school sector, in particular with the aim of inform- ing the school sector about view- points at the universities on the development of programmes in school as well as about development of pro- grammes at the universities. These trends, which we have dis- cussed aboye, will most certainly lead to changes in the organization, content and orientation of many of the studies. In particular, it is anicipated that there will be a shift in emphasis from traditional subject orientation to what is required in the professions, even though the fundamental character of the university studies, the combina- tion of research and study, and the scientific way of reasoning, will be upheld. REFERENCES 1. Fomerad, J.; Van de-Graaff, J.A.; Wasser, H. Higher Education in Western Europe and North America: A Selected and Annotated Biblio- graphy. New York, Council for European Studies, 1979. 2. Newman, J.H.: The Idea of a Univer- sity. First edition in 1852. An edition with introduction and re- marks by I.T. Ker was published in London, at Oxford University Press, 1976 3. Ortega y Gasset, José: Mission of the University. Princeton Univer- sity Press, 1944, Princeton 4. The reports and recommendations being the basis for this latter part of the article are all in Norwegian and therefore not in- cluded in the references. Those interested in further information may contact the Institute for Edu- cational Research, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1092, Blindern, Oslo 3, Norway. 24ACADEMIC ATTITUDES TOWARDS BASIC HIGHER EDUCATION Jan-Erik LANE Umeâ University, Sweden In Swedish higher education, a prolonged debate has focussed on the distinction between specialized train- ing oriented towards vocational pre- paration and a general academic train- ing oriented towards the idea of a li- beral arts education. This theme is part of the broader problem of how to plan basic higher education. Centrally conceived reforms have met with defi- nite attitudes among those active in the day to day operations in the sys- tem of higher education. This article maps these attitudes towards the orientation of basic higher education among Swedish academics. The findings indicate that the academics themselves unanimously value the contact between research and training but they are divided on the issue of specialized training versus general education. Moreover, those responsible for the inner life of academia place high value on the quality of the training provided. The concept of belief system, as developed by P. Converse in his 1964 Book "The Nature of Belief Sys- tems in Mass Politics", has a wider range of usefulness than just in poli- tical ideologies alone; it may also be used to analyse patterns of attitudes at institutions of higher education and research. Here there is a heritage of ideas about the orientation and the organization of research, training and administration. These ideas are value- loaded and there is reason to expect that those active in academia do not express views on various aspects of higher education that vary in just any fashion. In other words there are limitations that make up a pattern of attitudes. Just what variation exists between opinions and what patterns of attitudes may be identified are, of course, empirical questions which will be elucidated here by means of factor analysis. I will focus on attitudes towards undergraduate training. The survey The target population of the survey - Swedish academics - consists of different groups of teachers at the faculties (departments) with per- manent resources for research and instruction. A department has perma- nent research resources if it com- prises: (a) material resources (e.g. libraries, and laboratories) for research purposes, and (b) one or more permanent professorships. Further- more, a permanent research organi- zation presupposes: (c) that a faculty organization exists to which the de- partment belongs, and (d) that gra- duate programmes are offered at the department. The size of the target popula- tion is about 14,000. When calculat- ing the rate of non-respondents in the total sample of 1,110 it must be considered that among the persons with whom we were unable to get into contact, there are probably certain cases of over-coverage. We use the overall estimate as an estimate and the actual overall rate of nonrespon- dents is estimated as 26%. The formulation of the questions of the inquiry about the training at universities and colleges was made on the basis of issues in the political debate of the 1970s on higher educa- tion. The 26 questions in all con- cerned problems like (i) vocational orientation (ii) the linking with research (iii) the quality of the training (iv) secondary and post-secondary orientation of the training. The debate on higher education with respect to item (i) has been brought to the fore by planners and decision-makers in various investiga- tions and. political decisions, whereas items (ii), (iii) and (iv) have been focussed on by representatives of academic assemblies. To a certain ex- tent, these interests, of these different 25groups have developed in confrontation: the more central decision-makers have tried to carry vocational orientation into effect through reforms of tradi- tional courses of study, the more aca- demia has maintained that the linking of instruction with research jeopar- dizes the status and the academic character of the training. Table 1. Factor analysis of the answers to 26 questions about education Factor 1 2 3 4 5. 6 Eigenvalue 7.92675 2.84545 1.58348 1.35688 1.22059 1 .03390 PCT 30.5 10.9 6.1 5.2 4.7 4.0 CUM 30.5 41.4 47.5 52.7 57.4 61.4 The factor analysis of the 26 answers gives 6 factors which explain 60° of the variation; one factor dominates. Quality of the training Table 2. Attitude by position to the quality of the training Question: "The instruction at my department takes place in too high a degree in fixed forms which hampers the initiative and independence of the pupils". Position Professor Docent, Research associate and similar Permanent university lectu- rer and junior lecturer Other teachers Assistant, amanuensis Total Do not agree 64.1 44.9 65.0 51.5 53.5 54.0 Agree partly 23.3 30.5 26.6 35.1 32.1 31.2 Agree entirely 10.3 11.3 6.4 10.7 6.8 8.7 Do not know 2.4 13.3 - 2.7 7.6 6.2 The dominating attitude dimension on the part of those active at academic institutions with regard to the training in Swedish higher education, is the quality and the academic orientation of the training. There is a clear and systematic attitude to questions that refer to various aspects of quality on the training at different levels as well as to questions connected with the performance of students. To what extent does this attitude dimension contain a positive and a negative attitude? 26Table 3. Attitudes by position to the quality of the training Question: "Too few students at my department proceed to graduate study". Position Professor Docent, Research associate and similar Permanent university lectu- rer and junior lecturer Other teachers Assistant, amanuensis Total Do not agree 36.6 22.7 28.1 36.1 29.2 30.3 Agree partly 36.2 25.7 46.7 23.3 29.3 30.1 Agree entirely 22.5 41.0 24.7 31 .3 23.2 27.7 Do not know 4.6 10.5 0.5 9.4 18.2 11.9 There is a cleavage between those who consider that the quality of the training is good at their own departments and those who express more or less criticism. The strong positive attitude among the groups of professors and university lecturers may be somewhat surprising, but most likely a positive reaction to the training at one's own department does not exclude a negative attitude to other aspects of the training. Table 4. Attitudes by faculty to the quality of the training Question: "The basic education at my department con- stitutes a. good foundation for graduate study". Faculty Agriculture Arts Law Science Medicine Odontology Social sciences Technology Theology School of Economics Total Do not agree 26.9 26.4 35.0 21.8 29.8 53.5 40.5 14.0 36.8 14.6 25.9 Agree partly 41.6 59.3 47.5 42.9 38.2 33.4 49.0 49.0 57.9 61 .0 46.0 Agree entirely 13.1 8.7 7.3 35.3 28.6 8.2 6.5 32.4 2.6 23.0 23.3 Do not know 18.4 5.6 10.3 - 4.4 4.9 3.9 4.6 2.6 1.3 4.8 27Even though the positive attitude is not equally salient when it comes to opinions towards student performance at the department, the cleavage remains between those who hold that the conditions of training are satisfactory and those who are more or less critical. Even if, in the case of this question, those who are critical are considerably more numerous, there is no indica- tion that a majority are of the opinion that recruitment to graduate training might be threatened, which has sometimes been asserted in the debate on higher education. Respecting the first attitude dimension - quality of the training - we can establish a pattern with two components: first, there is a distinct cleavage between those who are positively disposed to the training at academic institutions and those who. are more or less negative; and second, with regard to the evaluation of the training, a distinction is made between conditions at one's own department and the manner in which the students relate to the training. The number of those who are critical increases when it is a question of student performance. This dividing line runs through all categories of staff. How do the various faculties look upon the quality of the training? Table 5. Attitudes by faculty to the quality of the training Question: "Teachers working within graduate training have poor contact with basic education at my department Faculty Agriculture Arts Law Science Medicine Odontology Social sciences Technology Theology School of Economics Total Do not agree 50.7 44.9 65.8 43.5 75.7 73.0 36.1 70.0 58.0 56.8 57.8 Agree partly 7.4 27.3 17.1 27.9 •18.1 6.7 32.9 15.2 27.7 21.4 20.9 Agree entirely 6.7 18.1 1.0 28.6 1.8 4.8 25.8 7.1 5.0 4.9 13.3 Do not know 35.1 9.7 16.1 - 4.4 5.2 5.2 7.7 9.3 16.9 8.1 There is among all those questioned, a significant minority that is critical of the basic education as a foundation for graduate study, but the dominant attitude is positive. However, there are rather different views within the various faculties. The distance is great between the faculties of odontology, social sciences and law on the one hand and the faculty of technology and the school of economics on the other. Either the quality of the'training must vary with faculty, or the demands on the quality of the training vary. More than 1/3 of those questioned at the faculty of science consider that the basic education constitutes a good foundation for graduate study. 28whereas the corresponding figure is only 6% at the faculty of social sciences and 3% at the faculty of theology. Table B. Attitudes by position to the quality of the training Question: "Too few students at my institution take higher courses within basic education (40-point, 60-point, 80-point levels)". (to be answered only by teachers at the philosophical faculty) Position Professor Docent, Research associate and similar Permanent university lectu- rer and junior lecturer Other teachers Assistant, amanuensis Total Do not agree 30.8 22,. 8 29.9 33.2 29.1 29.5 Agree partly 23.1 19.9 18.1 24.7 24.1 22.9 Agree entirely 28.6 22.0 50.4 39.4 21.0 29.8 Do not know 17.4 35.3 1.6 2.7 25.8 17.9 Concerning the interaction between basic education and graduate training, the predominant attitude is a positive one in that a majority of those questioned are of the opinion that the teachers within graduate training have good contact with basic education. In the data there is no general support for a hypothesis, put forward in the afore mentioned debate, that graduate training and basic education should, de facto3 be separated at the departments. At three faculties, the faculties of social sciences, science and arts, there are dissenting opinions. At these faculties there is support for the idea that the distance between those active within graduate training and those active within basic education has become too great. While those questioned on the whole, stand up for the quality of the training, there is more criticism regarding the linking of the students to the training. Data on views on the construction of the curriculum are given above. 29Table 7. Attitude by faculty to the quality of the training Question: "The quality of basic education is low". Faculty Agriculture Arts Law Science Medicine Odontology Social sciences Technology Theology School of Economics Total Do not agree 57.6 38.9 37.9 44.9 64.5 69.3 23.3 49.7 21.4 64.1 47.5 Agree partly 15.4 44.4 49.9 44.3 21.3 21.6 47.7 39.0 59.6 33.9 36.9 Agree entirely 9.6 12.2 5.9 7.6 3.5 3.3 26.0 11.4 13.7 0.7 10.7 Do not know 17.3 4.5 6.3 3.2 10.7 5.8 3.1 - 5.3 1.3 4.9 In recent years it has often been pointed out that the number of students who complete higher courses within basic education has decreased steeply. This point of view is to be found above all among lecturers who are responsible for the instruction at this level. There is a considerable negative opinion towards the present organization of courses. A distinction is evidently made by Swedish academics between the supply of education and the demand for education. While the group that is positively disposed to the education at universities and colleges is larger generally speaking than the group that is not, the attitude toward the supply is more positive than the attitude toward the demand! Data do not give any support for the idea that there should be any kind of general discontent with the education provided. Nearly 50% of those questioned reject a general negative judgement of the quality of the training; only 11% say that they can support such a statement. The differences between the faculties are pronounced. Compare, for example, the faculties of social sciences and theology with the faculties of medicine, odontology and technology! 30Table 6. Attitudes by faculty to the quality of the training Question: "The quality of graduate training at my department is high". Faculty Agriculture Arts Law Science Medicine Odontology Social sciences Technology Theology School of Economics Total Do not agree 28.4 34.7 36.1 33.1 16.9 36.5 47.3 17.6 25.6 28.9 27.9 Agree partly 35.5 48.7 23.3 41.4 39.8 32.7 42.0 51.7 48.1 35.1 43.4 Agree entirely 15.8 9.8 13.6 21.3 39.8 18.0 6.3 20.0 19.2 18.5 20.3 Do not know 20.3 6.8 27.0 4.2 3.5 12.8 4.4 10.7 7.1 17.6 8.4 The faculty of social sciences in particular tends throughout to deviate from the pattern outlined here; at this faculty they are significantly more critical of the training provided. We have established that this applies to basic education. How do they look upon graduate training? Table 9. Attitudes by faculty to the quality of the training Question: "The linking of basic education with the labour market is acceptable". Faculty Agriculture Arts Law Science Medicine Odontology Social sciences Technology Theology School of Economics Total Do not agree 17.1 16.7 12.7 16.5 5.4 2.9 23.6 10.7 12.4 7.0 13.3 Agree partly 26.4 47.2 51.5 58.9 30.5 22.1 36.8 34.5 62.9 48.4 39.8 Agree entirely 44.7 22.4 32.6 17.6 61.5 69.2 34.3 50.1 19.1 _ 42.1 ~~ 40.7 Do not know 11.8 13.8 3.2 7.0 2.6 5.8 5.4 4.8 5.5 2.5 6.2 31Nearly 50% of those questioned at the faculty of social sciences express discontent with the graduate training at their own department. Again it is the social scientists that deviate from the general pattern of two groups, one positive and the other negative, the positive one of which is the larger. However, it should be pointed out that also at the faculties of arts, law, odontology and science there are considerable groups that hold negative estimation of the graduate training at their respective departments. It has often been stated by those in favour of a reform of the organization of courses, that the linking of basic education with the labour market was defective, and also that the training should be internationalized. How do those active look upon these arguments? Table 10. Attitudes by faculty to the quality of the training Question: "Basic education needs . internationalizing". Faculty Agriculture Arts Law Science Medicine Odontology Social sciences Technology Theology School of Economics Total Do not agree 25.3 20. B 45.9 33.9 46.9 22.5 13.5 28.0 10.1 23.1 29.6 Agree partly 41.8 44.8 29.2 41.9 29.1 50.4 50.9 42.1 39.8 58.7 41.3 Agree entirely 11.5 23.3 18.1 18.8 14.4 16.9 21.1 12.0 44.8 16.9 16.7 Do not know 21.4 11.1 6.8 5.4 9.7 10.2 14.5 17.9 5.3 1.3 12.4 In view of the arguments in the debate on higher education, it is surprising that as many as 40% of those questioned are of the opinion that the basic training is clearly linked with the labour market. What is apparently a difficult problem for planners is regarded as problematic only by 13% of the academics. Again the social scientists fall outside the pattern. The idea of internationalization, which has been the subject of investigations as well as concrete programmes, has hardly any great support among the academics, As many as 30% reject the idea that basic education is in particular need of internationalization. Only 17% state that they fully support this idea, but 40% are partly sympathetic. The variation between the faculties should be noted. Whereas 50% of those active at the faculty of medicine reject the idea of internationalization, the corresponding group is only 14% at the faculty of social sciences. Also at the faculty of law a considerable group holds that the basic education there is sufficiently internationalized. Fairly strong support 32for the idea of internationalization is to be found only at the faculties of social sciences, arts and theology. Links with research Table 11. Attitudes by faculty to linking with research Question: "Should basic higher education (higher education in the arts excepted) contain contact with new findings of research?" Faculty Agriculture Arts Law Science Medicine Odontology Social sciences Technology Theology School of Economics Total Yes 95.8 99.6 81.5 98.1 99.2 95.2 97.0 85.0 97.4 93.B 94.0 No 4.2 - 4.0 1.2 0.8 _ 0.3 6.6 - - 2.6 Do not know - 0.4 14.4 0.6 - 4.8 2.6 8.4 2.6 6.4 3.5 A second attitude dimension is arrived at consisting of views on how and to what extent basic higher education should be related to research. The interpretation of the factor can be made in an unambiguous way: the dimension consists of an attitude to the contacts of various kinds that should exist between basic education and research. On the other hand, the attitude dimension does not concern the question to what extent basic education should be oriented towards preparing for graduate study. Swedish academics make a clear distinction between the relation of basic education and research and the relation of basic education and graduate study. Are there any cleavages with regard to how extensive the linkage between instruction and training should be? 33Table 12. Attitudes by position to linking with research Question: "Should basic higher'education (higher education in the arts excepted) contain elements of research?" Position Professor Docent, Research associate and similar Permanent university lectu- rer and junior lecturer Other teachers Assistant, amanuensis Total Yes 66.7 66.H 71.1 74.6 70.3 70.4 No 30.3 29.1 24.9 17.1 21.4 23.1 Do not know 3.0 3.9 3.9 8.3 6.3 6.6 On the normative level, the attitude of aca'-demics is favourable towards a contact with research in their instruction. Of course, these data on attitudes cannot give any information about the extent to which this actually occurrs. Contact with research is one thing, but should there also be elements of research in basic higher education? Linking the findings of research with instruction is embraced,with few exceptions,by all those questioned, but linking instruction with the actual practice of research encounters more scepticism, even if more than 2/3rds accept also this version of interaction between research and instruction. Actually, there is more support for linking education with actual, direct research among permanent lecturers and other teachers than there is among professors and other researchers. There is no resistance to a basic education containing elements of research among those, who are most immediately responsible for instruction at this level. 34Vocational orientation Table 13. Attitudes by position to vocational orientation Question: "To what extent should general lines of education be biased in favour of vocational training?" Position Professor Docent, Research associate and similar Permanent university lecturer and junior lecturer Other teachers Assistant, amanuensis Total Very small extent 9.4 3.4 11.6 8.7. 12.2 9.7 Small extent 35.2 41.1 34.1 31.4 41.0 37.7 Great extent 47.5 39.7 47.1 47.0 37.9 42.0 Very great extent 1.8 10.5 4.4 9.7 3.6 5.9 Do not know 6.1 5.3 2.8 3.2 5.3 4.7 The question of whether and to what extent basic higher education should be vocationally oriented is a classical theme in the dábate on Swedish higher education. Traditionally, a distinction has been made in the curricula between lines of education that should be directed to particular professions and lines that should provide a general orientation. It has been asserted by central planners and decision-makers that lines of education directed towards a general orientation should be reoriented towards particular professions, whereas it has been maintained by groups within the universities and colleges that vocational lines provide too little of a general orientation that facilitate adjustment to the labour market in the long run. Thus the academics show two different attitude dimensions in relation to the problems of vocational orientation. The third attitude dimension involves the issue of how much vocational orientation there should be in academia, whereas the fourth attitude dimension delimits a special attitude to the vocational orientation of the basic training within one's own discipline. Let us start with the third attitude dimension. 35Table 14. Attitudes by faculty to vocational orientation Question: "To what-extent should single courses be vocationally oriented?" Faculty Agriculture Arts Law Science Medicine Odontology Social sciences Technology Theology School of Economics Total Very small extent 1.7 15.8 10.0 11.8 8.7 2.5 10.7 5.5 5.3 9.1 8.5 Small extent 35.4 56.8 25.2 44.8 42.7 38.4 38.8 41.5 47.6 31.5 42.2 Great extent 44.7 19.6 41.3 34.8 35.0 37.4 40.0 37.8 43.5 41.7 36.2 Very great extent 5.9 1.9 17.2 4.8 5.3 9.6 5.7 10.2 2.4 7.5 6.8 Do not know 12.4 5.9 6.3 3.9 8.4 12.1 4.9 5.0 1.1 10.1 6.3 Those active at academic institutions are divided into two groups of much the same size who hold different views on how much vocational orientation is suitable for one part of basic higher education, vis. the general lines of education. The dividing line runs basically between two .moderate positions but there are some groups that adhere to more radical views on how little or how much vocational orientation is needed, although they attain only about 10% among the various categories of staff. Since, according to the intentions of central decision-makers and planners, the general lines of education should be vocationally oriented, there is, in the data, an indication of scepticism or criticism of the reform of the system of curricula. It is evident that those questioned are split into two different groups with regard to the attitude to vocational orientation. Does this cleavage recur in views on single courses, the other main part of basic higher education? 36Table 15. Attitudes by faculty to vocational orientation Question: "To what extent should the training of the philosophical faculty be vocationally oriented?" Faculty Agriculture Arts Law- Science Medicine Odontology Social sciences Technology Theology School of Economics Total Very small extent 7.4 26.6 7.3 17.7 15.3 5.6 11.4 10.5 10.7 24.2 13.8 Small extent 39.6 44.5 24.2 39.4 25.6 35.8 51.0 46.8 59.9 37.1 40.6 Great extent 27.4 25.5 25.2 37.6 38.8 34.4 27.2 24.0 27.6 14.6 30.3 Very great extent - 3.0 12.3 0.6 7.8 - 4.4 1.9 - - 3.1 Do not know 25.5 0.4 31.0 4.7 12.4 24.4 5.9 16.8 1.9 24.1 12.2 The intention behind single courses is that these should be more directed to a liberal arts education than general lines of education and thus supplement these general lines of education. This difference appears in the attitudes of the academics, but it is surprising how slightly marked it is. Again we find the same cleavage between those who are supporters of more vocational orientation and those who want to see less of it. It is true that the latter are now a larger group than was the case respecting the degree of vocational bias in the general lines of education, but nearly 50% of those questioned can'also accept a high degree of vocational orientation of single courses. Only the faculty of arts seems determined to reserve single courses for something else than preparation for particular professions. In the debate on higher education, it has often been asserted that the training at the philosophical faculties failed in preparing students for particular professions. How do Swedish academics look upon a vocational orientation of the training at these faculties? 37Table 16. Attitudes by faculty to vocational orientation Question: "Basic education within my discipline should provide general orientation without direction to a particular profession". Faculty Agriculture Arts Law Science Medicine Odontology Social sciences Technology Theology School of Economics Do not agree 37.3 14.1 4B.7 18.2 58.7 86.0 16.9 28.7 8.8 11.1 Agree partly 35.1 44.9 29.1 31.9 27..7 5.4 44.2 38.2 60.2 59.7 Agree entirely 23.3 40.2 19.7 49.8 10.9 1.0 38.9 28.2 29.1 28.1 Do not Know 4.2 0.7 2.5 - 2.7 7.5 - 4.9 1.9 1.1 Again,we can establish that there is a distinct but moderate cleavage with regard to the vocational orientation of basic higher education. Even if a majority maintains that the training at philosophical faculties should not be stamped by preparation for particular professions, there is a considerable group as many as 1/3rd of those questioned, that is of the opinion that the vocational orientation of this training should be important. Data indicate that a radical rejection of all Kinds of vocational bias of the training at philosophical faculties has support above all among those active at the faculty of arts. With regard to a vocational orientation of basic higher education, we can establish that, on the whole, those questioned fall into two groups, one group wanting vocational orientation to a small extent, and the other group wanting vocational orientation to a larger extent. These two groups appear to be the same size. However, we get a different pattern when looKing at data on the specific attitude to vocational orientation of the training within one's own discipline. When it is a matter of the vocational orientation of one's own discipline, the cleavage between those who are positive and those who are negative remains, but it is evident that the group of those negative increases substantially. At several faculties there is strong support for the view that the training within one's own discipline should primarily provide a broad orientation and not preparation for a particular profession. Within the philosophical faculties, this opinion is the predominant one, but there are significant differences between the faculties. At the faculty of medicine, odontology and law, a majority or nearly a majority 38adhere to the view that within their own disciplines preference should be given to vocational orientation rather than to a liberal arts training. Conclusion Swedish teachers and researchers at academic institutions unanimously stand up for the principle that basic higher education should be linked with research. They had somewhat different attitudes to the question of how this principle should be put into practice with a small group being sceptical to direct elements of research enter- ing into the training. Two clear divid- ing lines can be establishedj one concerns the question of the quality of the training whereas the other is concerned with the concerns extent to which basic higher education should be vocationally oriented. To the first dividing line - the quality of the training - it appears that a majority expresses satisfaction with the present basic training and graduate training» in particular with regard to the supply of training, whereas the group of those who are critical increases when questions of the students' de- mand for education become relevant. The other dividing line - vocational orientation versus a liberal arts edu- cation - divides those active into two groups of the same size, one mo- derately negative. To a great extent this dividing line is a function of faculty membership. The demand for a stronger vocational orientation of basic higher education expressed con- tinuously by central planners and decision-makers receives substantial support among the Swedish academics as long as it is a question of an abstract idea; when the problem over vocationally oriented courses boils down to the subject field in which the teacher is active himself, the support declines markedly. REFERENCES: Converse, P. The Nature of Belief Systems in Mass Politics. In: D. Apter, Ideology and Discontent. 1964. Lane, J.E. & Fredriksson, B. Higher Education and Public Administration. Almqvist S Wiksell International, 1982. Lane, J.E.; Stenlund, H.¡ Westlund.A. Higher Education Attitudes. Forthcoming 1982. TRAINING OF A SPECIALIST: OPTIMAL MODELS AND PRAGMATIC SOLUTIONS I. Podlasyi Assistant Professor Pedagogical Institute Cherkassy, Ukrainian SSR The main problem facing contem- porary higher education is that of settling the contradiction between the steadily growing volume of scien- tific knowledge needed by a special- ist, and the difficulty of assimilat- ing it all, in other words the optimal correlation between general and spe- cial training in the sphere of higher education. Perhaps this problem worries only scholars who are sometimes prone to exaggerate the dimensions of this issue, but probably not. Regardless of our possible desire to minimize the practical importance of this prblem, it is manifest today, to a larger or lesser degree, in the pro- duction spheres of all the countries of the world. It is precisely produc- tion that finally evaluates the standard of quality of a graduate's training and determines his profes- sional qualification. We have not yet learned to measure, by means of quan- titative indices, the effect produced on the production process by a spe- cialist's capability to solve narrow special questions and broader general problems. This is why it is difficult 39to express in figures the influence of a graduate's training standards on production efficiency. But there is consensus among experts that such an interdependence does, in fact, exist. The range of a specialist's training finds indirect expression in the rates of production's development and in the quantity and quality of the produced goods and many other perfectly mea- surable entities. Most valuable for modern produc- tion are people combining encyclopaedic education with thorough professional- ism. The leading specialists in every branch of production, and this is borne out by patent examples, are exactly these Kinds of people. Their educa- tional level and depth of professional knowledge deserve admiration. What does the model of a modern specialist look like with regard to the correlation of his general and special education? There can be no disagreement as far as theoretical, purposeful education is concerned. The optimal model presupposes that every specialist should combine encyclopaedic education with thorough professional- ism. The more erudite specialists, equipped with methods of finding the' necessary information are bound to come up on top. It turns out that in the ideal case every specialist should be versed in all the classical and modern discoveries made in every do- maini •of human knowledge. This con- clusion warrants other questions: is it possible to grasp all the achie- vements of world knowledge in the limited timespan alotted to higher education? This question immediately narrows down the concept of educa- tion's breadth within practically justified limits. Now we are to ana- lyse a new sphere circumscribed by certain practically justified limits. It is understandable that this sphere depends on the professional activity of a future specialist and is deter- mined by target models. The latter are worked out on the basis of prognostic models of production development. To determine the limits and range of expediency means to answer the question of the conformity of higher education's breadth and depth. There is ample illustration of the inefficiency and even harmfulness of narrow specialization. Let us take, for instance, the medical professions - surgeons, occulists, therapeutists, etc. At first glance, their education was adequate, attempting to equip the specialist with the knowledge concern- ing his narrow sphere of medicine and to raise his qualifications to the maximum. The only thing that the or- ganizers of medical education had over- looked was the fact that the human being is a single, indivisible whole, where everything is interdependent. And if you have a sore tooth, the rea- sons for it may lurk in a very distant part of the organism - the bladder or stomach. Completely forgotten is the advise of the ancients to treat the sick, not the sickness. There is a whole spate of narrow professions, but no general progress is being observed in world medicine. This example shows that narrow professionalism is by no means a harmless trend. A report of an American commission was published a few years ago which noted that 50% of the patients, prepared for operations at American hospitals, did not need to be operated at all. What does the model of the cor- relation of the general and special education of a modern specialist look like? It is pertinent to note that attempts to produce such a model have been made by researchers of many coun- tries. So far the results are not encouraging. Due to the lack of exact definitions for such concepts as "knowledge", "activity", "general edu- cation", "special training", "produc- tion functions" etc., the use of the most efficient methods of processing expert evaluations proves insufficient and there is trustworthiness in the obtained results. Furthermore, a ge- neral shortcoming of the present models is that they do not take into account the psychological mechanisms which allow a specialist to solve these or 40other problems. This is why those "correlation models" are nothing more than subjective views of their com- pilers, often veiled by additional stipulations and sometimes merely by pseudoscientific attributes. The common feature of all the present-day specialists' training mo- dels is the obvious trend towards the expansion of basic general education. An overwhelming majority of persons involved with higher education polled by researchers, spoke out unequivo- cally for the expansion of general education at institutions of higher education. These attitudes are moti- vated by the changing functions of a modern specialist employed in the sphere of production, as the result of the conditions of his professional activities and the trends of scienti- fic and technological development and social progress. Requirements for the training of teachers in the European countries are an example of this. The list of qualities, necessary to discharge the teacher's duties effectively and at the level of modern demands, includes, apart from command of the given sub- ject and teaching methods, such overall requirements as general erudition. Knowledge of generalized thinking methods, spiritual wealth, aptitude for independent creative endeavour, knowledge of child, pedagogical- and social psychology, and socio-economic, political and legal knowledge. What are the ways of solving successfully the problems of train- ing a modern specialist? Because of the fact that today there is a huge amount of concrete special knowledge in any sphere of human activity which continues to accrue daily, a promising way of training a specialist is that of developing his creative thinking abilities, elaborating general methods of finding concrete solutions and mastering the algorithms of new in- ventions. This is why, according to higher education development prognoses, the role of methodology, gnoseology, logic, semantics and especially ma- thematics is to grow in the foresee- able future in the syllabi of insti- tutions of higher education. Irrespective of the future, spe- ciality, it is necessary to develop at the level of higher education in- stitutions the following essential qualities which are prerequisites for future successful activity: ability to pick out important points from a conglomerate of facts, phenomena and processes; ability to form original associations; ability to find and use analogies, to transform the available knowledge into another sphere; ability to do away easily with stereotypes in thinking and practical activity, to overcome "psychological barriers"; and an ability to find a correct solu- tion in problematic situations. This calls for the solution of many ques- tions related to the organization of higher education and, first and fore- most, it is necessary to find means to induce students to creative acti- vity. Great expectations are pinned on the development of scientific in- formation media. It is regarded as the second most effective way of over- coming the contradiction between ge- neral and special education. The con- temporary methods of arranging and storing information allow us to shift the accents in the process of educa- tion from the transmission and accu- mulation of knowledge and facts to the development of the ability to think and to use the available know- ledge, to master the methods of at- taining this or that result. In the real meaning of the word, education becomes self-education, self-mastering of thinking methods for which the studied subjects provide the necessary foundation. Life calls for the effective introduction of continuous education for specialists employed in the sphere of production. In view of this, the institutions of higher education must become study centres for working people of every age. Many professions 41outlive themselves, others change, while still others, are replaced by new ones. An effective way out of the existing situation is the organization of retraining and the upgrading of centres at "institutions of higher edu- cation. All the European countries have accumulated substantial experience in this domain. Its further expansion should lead to the creation of a new Kind of higher education which will serve as the centre for continuous education. This is regarded as the third effective way of improving the general and special training of personnel. It is pertinent to note one more rather promising way of overcoming naturally the existing discordance be- tween general and special education which is being used already now and which has a big future. Namely, the use of different, primarily, technical means of raising the efficiency of professional activity, making such ac- tivity easier. The huge and inexhaust- ible arsenal of technical means tend- ing to enhance human powers and mental potentialities, now ranges from com- puters, modern information systems and equipment to vast amounts of special literature, reference manuals, personal files etc. And,finally, helping to solve the problem, is the reorganization of the process of higher education. In quite a number of cases this will re- quire radical transformations. It is necessary to do away with the practice of presenting scientific Knowledge to the students as an accomplished achie- vement, as ready-made exhaustive infor- mation. This not only contradicts the truth, but tends also to increase authoritarianism in education and deadens the student's intellect and his ability to seek independent solu- tions. A person who constantly copies pretailored precepts will never become a creator. In training a specialist, it is necessary to take into account, to a greater extent, the existing com- plex of psychological problems, such as the motivation of cognitive activities, the problem of adaptation to the changing medium, the communi- cation problem and many,others. PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT OF A SPECIALIST IN THE PROCESS OF EDUCATION AT A PEDAGOGICAL INSTITUTE Valentin Hkolaevich SHKUEKO Chief of the Department of Pedagogical Educational Establishments of the Ministry of Education of the' Byelorussian SSR, MinsK, BSSR Today we have every reason to say that the quality of theoretical and professional training has indeed improved at Byelorussian pedagogical institutes. This well organized education includes: a) a systematized, complex approach to the specific goals and tasks of teachers' personality develop- ment; b) unity of different forms, methods and means of educational influence upon the future teacher's personalityj c) scientific direction of the system of student training and education. Some 31,000 specialists have been trained in the Byelorussian SSR during the 10th Five-Year Plan period and 90% of this number have been as- signed to rural schools. At the pre- sent time, 21,647 students are attend- ing courses at the Republic's peda- gogical institutes. A number of measures were taKen in Byelorussia in recent years to modernize the teaching process at institutions of higher education. The pedagogical institutes have gra- dually gone over to new instructional programmes which cover practically all the special subjects. The 42programmes contain an enumeration of carefully selected subjects, grouped within reasonable limits according to allied professions. In order to improve the profes- sional training of future teachers, a new subject has been included in the instructional programmes, known as "Introduction to the profession", and a revised time-table of psycho- pedagogical studies has been adopted. The latter are now programmed in such, a way as to cover the entire learning period without interruption. The Ministry of Education of the Byelorussia has drawn up qualifica- tion descriptions of all the pedago- gical professions. This work is now all but com- pleted, making possible to conform the entire process of instruction and education with the required profes- sional standards of a teacher. At the same time,-we are per- fectly aware that the new study pro- grammes are still far from perfect. This refers, first of all, to the flaws in the sections dealing with the psycho-pedagogical training of students in their preparation for educational work at school. As little as 7% of the teaching time is allot- ted to psycho-pedagogical subjects in the curricula. This, most obvious- ly, is far from enough. With this in mind, we advise the institutes to make wider use of special courses and seminars to intensify the psycho- pedagogical training of young spe- cialists. They are bound to contri- bute to a more thorough special training of students, to put them in contact with the complex world of science, to give them the necessary theoretical background and practical know-how for future' pedagogical work. As many as 19 study programmes for these courses and seminars, intended to improve the psycho-pedagogical training of students, have been drawn up and are now being used in the teaching process at many depart- ments of different institutes. They include such courses as "The methods of educational work at primary schools", "Instructional and educa- tional work in conditions of a pro- longed school day", "Organization of instructional and educational work at preparatory classes of general education schools", "Rudiments of the pedagogics of work with Young Pioneers", "The teacher and the Komsomol organization", "The methods of a classmaster's work and the professional training of students", "The school's contacts with the fa- mily and society", "The psychology of vocational training" etc. We realize, of course, that shortage of time does not allow the student to master the knowledge of- fered by all the special courses, but he is definitely in a position to select the ones that suit best the subjects he is majoring in. At the Pedagogical Institute, S.M. Kirov, in Vitelsk, special psycho-pedagogical training courses and seminars are programmed to cover the entire study period. We believe this to be the correct way of solving the problem of training future educa- tors. The institutes, rectorates and chairs reckon in their work with the fact that modern schools tend to make active use in the teaching process of the most effective tutorial methods and, naturally, the future teacher must be well versed in them. At the same time, we are concerned about the fact that a considerable number of the institute's faculty makes use of the traditional methods of instruction, rarely resorting to new methods of modern didactics. This often tends to make the lectures and seminars boring and uninteresting. Proceeding from this, we demand that the heads of institutions of higher education should use the inter- disciplinary approach and should teach students the habits of systematically reading pedagogical publications. Every freshman should be aware from 43the start of contemporary school prob- lems, and should keep abreast of the country's and the republic's school life. Special attention is being given to the familiarization of students with school curricula and study courses and with the proper use of textbooks. The process of training a teacher involves independent studies. For many years now, the periodical press is de- bating the correct definition of stu- dent independent activities. The point in question is whether they merely involve the independent fulfilment of home assignments or include also the independent work done during lectures or laboratory sessions which are su- pervised by an instructor from begin- ning to end. It appears that the two aspects should not be sharply delimited be- cause the development of student inde- pendent creativity, proper elaboration of this process and supervision over it, should be a single integrated system. It is interesting to mention, in this context, the experience of the Faculty of Pedagogics and Methodology of the Brest Pedagogical Institute, whose teaching staff made particular use of the tried and tested method of colloquiums yet introducing an import- ant change in their proceedings: they are no longer intended to sum up the covered study material, but to deal with yet unstudied subjects. This type of colloquium, tending to "keep ahead" of the programmed lectures, rids the lecturer of the need to acquaint the students in de- tail with the factual material during study hours, which, according to estimates, cuts the lecturing time by 25%. Equally important is the fact that, in the given case, the lecturer becomes, to all intents and purposes, an interpreter of events, who ponders them together with the students, instead of being merely a narrator. Instead of being a vehicle of informa- tion, the lecture turns into a lively discussion with an audience that is already versed in the subject. Much attention at the Botany Department of the same institute is being given to the techniques and methods of staging school experiments, which is very im- portant for a nature study teacher. The Department's teaching staff point out the subjects that warrant school programmed experiments, indicate the more suitable ones - demonstrational or laboratory experiments. Methodolo- gical recommendations on the most difficult chapters of the school curriculum have been drawn up as aids to students. The independent activities of students are meticulously planned and regulated at the pedagogical institutes of the republic. Study plans for every academic term are being introduced and a definite amount of teaching time is allotted to each subject depending on the so-called labour-consumption coefficient. The progress of science and technology which has an impact on education also, calls for the use of technical teaching aids in the pro- cess of instruction and education. At the Minsk Pedagogical Institute, named after A.M. Gorki, all the 46 departments are provided with modern technical study aids. A closed te- levision circuit is being success- fully used in the teaching process. Instructors of the department of study aids have developed teaching methods for different courses, a film and film-strip file has been compiled, and televised laboratory experiments have been developed, proving most efficient. Special se- minars have been organized for the faculty and auxiliary staff of all the institute departments to teach them how to use technical study aids. The ideological education of students holds an important place in the multifarrious work of educational establishments. Improvement of the 44contents and methods of teaching so- cial sciences has ensured better aca- demic progress of students in these domains. The marks received by them during examination sessions are usual- ly higher than the standard. At the same time, we are fully aware that social science instructors of pedagogical institutes have still not been able to do away with elements of schematism and formality in their style of teaching. They have not over- come the tendency to present social sciences as the sum total of general truisms and as a means for the sub- stantiation of these truisms. There are occasionally cases when students are furnished with obsolete data and theoretical questions are loosely linked with practical aspects of com- munist construction. The Ail-Union Conference of the Heads of Social Sciences Departments has set before the social sciences instructors, employed at institutions of higher education, the task of doing away once and for all with elements of the rote system and the dogmatic ap- proach to the teaching of social scien- ces, in an effort to link them direct- ly with the complex economic and socio- political problems of social develop- ment and with the difficult and acute problems of ideological confrontation. Timeliness, proper consideration of the composition and interests of the student audience, close connection with the political, economic and so- cial requirements of the present day - such are the traits that should make the teaching of social sciences really efficient and purposeful. The many experiences of Byelo- russian's pedagogical institutes show that a good school teacher must be provided with a solid theoretical and practical background. But we are troubled by the fact that a future teacher not infrequently proves to be poorly prepared psychologically to discharge pedagogical duties which is often the reason for his eventual decision to quit the profession. The presently available study programmes covering different subjects, includ- ing psycho-pedagogical studies, de- fine, broadly, the amount of know- ledge a future teacher should assi- milate, but say almost nothing about the professional pedagogical skills that should be imparted to students in the course of training. In order to improve the prepa- ration of teachers, the Ministry of Education of the Byelorussian Republic has set out the following tasks: firstly, to define the concrete pro- fessional skills that a student should have; secondly, to verify the extent to which they are mastered by gradu- ates of pedagogical institutes; thirdly, to find reserves in the instructional and educational process for a more purposeful development of professional educational skills in future teachers. In the light of the abovesaid, an exceptionally important place be- longs to the practicáis. They give the students an opportunity to check their knowledge and skills and to carry out various educational activi- ties. However, not infrequently, the latter are disconnected and the stu- dent fails to sense the continuity of the educational process. All this prompted the pedagogi- cal institutes to work out special theoretical and practical assignments for students. These assignments at- tempt to bring out the interconnection and interdependence of individual phe- nomena in the process of the pupil's education and upbringing. These as- signments have been conventionally named: 1. Constructive assignments which are linked with the organization and planning of school and out-of- school educational activities in the- actual conditions of a given class or school; 2. Didactical assignments which are helpful in descerning and overcoming 45the existing difficulties; 3. Formative assignments which are con- ducive to the development of abili- ties and skills necessary in dealing with a body of pupils. This system helps one to master, in the process of practical training, the skills of planning elective and extra-curricular studies of a given subject as well as exposing one to the educational activities at different le- vels, such as the work of pedagogical councils, teachers' methodological as- sociations, classmasters and committees of schoolmasters teaching the same subject. Furthermore, this system teaches the student how to overcome certain difficulties that may arise in the pro- cess of learning and in his extra- curricular work as a teacher. Every student of a pedagogical institute has to carry out practical assignments and exercises during his training periods at schools, in neigh- bourhoods, children's clubs and at ju- venile deliquency inspectorates. The overall programme of such practicáis is drawn up in such a way as to give every student an opportunity to learn the methods of getting to know one's pupils, making pedagogical prognoses, planning and recording the results of education, and organizing educational activities in junior and senior classes. The pro- gramme is based on the concept of stage-by-stage development of pedagogi- cal skills and habits. Pedagogical institutes of Byelo- russia have also developed the basic forms of student communist education. These forms broadly used in the coun- try's institutions of higher education include: Leninist credit tests, young lecturers' schools, social professions' departments, various contests, socio- political practicáis, student-construc- tion teams. Also, at institutions of higher education, there is practiced the organization of theoretical con- ferences, lectures delivered by execu- tive managers, get-togethers with teachers, writers, arrangement of exhibitions and debates. It has become a tradition to hold so-called "depart- ment weeks" and "intramural institute functions", to effect "pedagogical visits" to rural schools, organize student propaganda teams etc. All this gives the students the knack of carrying out political and organiza- tional work among schoolchildren and within working communities. THE FIRST STEPS IN THE FRENCH HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM OF AN EDUCATIONAL STRATEGY OF TOMORROW: ALTERNANCE Bernard LIETARD Chargé de cours University Paris V, Department of Education "Any educational scheme is a political scheme" Bertrand Schwartz The educational policy of a country should not indeed be based on the sole critérium of economic ef- ficiency since one of its main ob- jectives is to raise the cultural level of the whole population. It remains, nevertheless, that one of the basic problems with which advanced industrialized nations are presently faced is the correlation between edu- cation and employment. It is no lon- ger possible, as in the sixties, to assume that developing educational facilities is sufficient for econo- mic growth based on industrial deve- lopment. The absorption of a flow of people with better and better educa- tion, is easy and even desirable in a period of economic growth, but it becomes a problem in an economic sys- tem with limited growth. In this respect, an OECD report 46CD states that "in view of the eco- nomic recession of years 1973 to 1975 and of the slowness of the subsequent economic recovery, the public began to question the usefulness of further educational expansion and the capabi- lity of the economic system to absorb a constantly increasing number of better and better educated people. In France, according to prepa- ratory work for the eighth plan (2), the 1973-1980 period is characterized by three major phenomena: an increased precariousness of certain jobs, a decrease of qualifications on enter- ing active life and, most of all, the increase of unemployment. The latter phenomenon, in particular, affects young people, notably those coming out from first-level educational es- tablishments. This is due not only to a quantitative inbalance - more and more people graduating while employ- ment demand is decreasing - but also to a qualitative one in the form of disparities between the requirements of the employment market, school out- put and the aspirations of graduating students. These phenomena are to be found in most industrialized countries. As for the students graduating from in- stitutions of higher education,a 1977 OECD report (3) shows that they are in a very difficult situation depend- ing on whether or not they have fol- lowed a trade-oriented course. The ones who have generally found an occupation, but very often inferior to what they expected. The others, failing to obtain a job in the public sector, find themselves in the same situation as students coming out from the general secondary education- al system; they are distributed at random in the scale of remunerations. The most fortunate ones find occupa- tions in the service sector but others have to accept elementary tasks or even unemployment. Thus, the higher education system is also affected by the strong pressures to which the educational system gene- rally is subjected, compelling it to adapt to economical requirements. Among the solutions considered to facilitate this crucial passage from school to active life, alternat- ing education is more and more often mentioned. The alternating education of young people was even the subject of a resolution of the Council of European Communities in Ï979 (4). At this first level, it is essentially an educational concept. E. MOURET (5) defines it as a new educational al- gebra, which, in accordance to vary- ing rates and conditions, associates a general and theoretical training given by an educational institution and a practical or applied training given by a working medium, the sub- stance of which is derived from pro- fessional practice. In France, the post-1968 period is characterized as far as higher education is concerned, by the regres- sion of two traditional trends: ex- tension of studies and the virtually exclusive valorization of theoretical education. The concept of alternating education provides an educational method adapted to the objective of the rehabilitation of practical training. At the first level, training courses are being developed. Proceed- ings of the Rennes symposium on "Alternating Higher Education" (6] stress that in 1974 in engineering or business colleges,"these training courses which not long ago had such a bad reputation, are again recommended and most of the time made compulsory. But their nature has changed: they no longer take the form of short touristic visits to the industry, but of real occupations taken up for se- veral months". These courses are not limited to students. Since 1970 the Ministry of Education has atttempted, with limited success, to promote in- struction courses for higher education teachers. A fact of quite different im- portance was the creation of new uni- versity degrees at all levels, for example the university degree of technology, the Master of Applied Sciences of management and of data 47processing applied to management de- grees, the degree of specialized higher education, etc. As the curricula for these degrees aim at preparing students for outlets other than teaching and research, they all include one or se- veral practical training periods of long duration integrated in the stu- dies. It must be noted that the basic option however, is still a polyvalent education which would better satisfy the adaptability and mobility which the trained student will require throughout his active life, a life which very likely will not be spent in the same occupation considering the social and economical environment where change and obsolescence are the rule. Special mention must be made of the attempts by a large number of European countries to set up a shorter form of higher education with a two- fold objective: deceleration of the growth curve of traditional educational strength and acquisition of skills and qualifications with a view to taking 'up a technical managerial staff func- tion in the production system. We are now going to consider the French experience with the Technical University Colleges (IUT) in relation to the subject of this paper. These colleges, created in 1965, present the following features: - the departments which prepare stu- dents for a degree of technology in two years are based on a func- tional analysis aimed at meeting both national and regional economi- cal requirements. These colleges provide a predominantly technical education and haye an essentially professional objective of supply- ing lower salaried staff for the industrial and tertiary sectors; - one third of the teachers came from the trade; - the education thus provided by these colleges owes a large part to professional training; in fact, these curricula include, in addition to theoretical education, a large amount of practical work carried out in the college as well as in firms [for example compulsory prac- tical training courses during the second year). The educational methods are claimed to be original and adapted to this objective. The University Colleges of Technology - like the attempts made by other countries to set up a short higher education system - did not de- velop as expected, for reasons well analysed by R. BDUDON (7). Neverthe- less, for the 1980-81 school year, this new form of study involved 53,609 students covering 33 special- ized topics, taught in 76 university colleges of technology. This new type of institution has mainly developed on the edge of traditional universi- ties and curricula with a type of education providing the student with a general education and preparing him for a trade. Its form and objectives are well suited to deal with the problems of alternating educational systems, which are currently the subject of pinpoint experiments. A number of efforts of this type have been organized in France for several years. As early as 1974, the Rennes symposium (6) recorded a few of them and expressed a wish for their progressive generalization. A report from "l*Agence pour le déve- loppement de I 'Education Permanente " (8) (The Agency for the Development of Continued Education) presents more recent efforts such as those of the University College of Technology of Nantes within the framework of the "Département Gestion des Entreprises et des Administrations" (The Depart- ment of Management of Business Con- cerns and Administrative Offices), the Diplôme d'Etudes Supérieures Générales (DEUG) (Degree of General Higher Studies) of the Lille Univer- sity of Sciences and Techniques, or the experimental co-operation between the PARIS VII University and business concerns in relation with the "Centre des Jeunes Dirigeants" (The Centre of young managers). The common factor 48educational project. An alternating system, indeed, assumes that the tra- ditional didactic approach, which is based solely on training in a specific discipline is superseded by a multi- disciplinary approach which recognizes the inter-dependency of the disciplines while at the same time allowing parti- cipation in the actual system of pro- duction. There should not be a mere juxtaposition between the formal coursework and the training periods. An alternating system of the composed type, should be adopted, that is to say a tight connection between both moments of activity at all levels of the educational field. Training of the educators (teachers and tutors at the firm) and the organization of their relations are determinant in achieving such an objective. Alternation helps students to mature, develops their active partici- pation in the teaching and develops their critical minds which, for that matter, could lead to criticism of the educational scheme itself. The danger is that their interests may center on practical resolution modes at the expense of more theoretical aspects. There is a risk of the "Balkanization" of the knowledge, by students who may be led to discredit theory and only ask for fragments of knowledge with a view to their imme- diate practical usage. Some members of the teaching profession stress the dangers of an approach which would transfer to the production system responsibilities which should fall on a public education service. GMALGLAIVE, is, so to speak, a spokesman for this group and in an article published in the magazine "L'Ecole et la Nat-ion" (10) (School and Nation), he stated: "The problem is to operate educational structures on production locations but independently of production short- term requirements — Our thinking on a different school must take account of the dialectical nature of the di- vision between the acquisition of abilities and the use of these abili- ties in some activity... The school must open out to life, and life to the school". 2000, we know, as well as B.SCHWARTZ (15), that "the implementation of al- ternation goes together with a change in society". Our hope is that with the assistance of the new government in- stalled in France since 1981, we may stop projecting yesterday's education- al ideals into the future and will make better allowance for the changes foreseen in society, economy and culture. In this perspective, we should pay more attention to the alternating educational experiments which cer- tainly still favour the domination of traditional forms, but which are a threat for this domination and which prefigure the prevailing structure of the educational system of tomorrow. REFERENCES: (1) Les politiques futures de l'édu- cation et l'évolution économique et sociale (The future policies of education and the economic and social evolution. Paris, OCDE, 1979. (2) Rapport du groupe Emploi-Formation du Vllème Plan (Survey of the group Job-Educatión of the 7th Plan).Paris, Documentation française, 1961. (3) L'insertion des jeunes dans la vie active. Rapport général. (Insertion of young people in active life. General survey). Paris, OCDE, 1977. (4) Résolution du Conseil des Commu- nautés Européennes du 18 décembre 1979 concernant la formation des jeunes en alternance. (Resolution of the Council of European Commu- nittees of 18 December 1979 con- cerning the alternating education of young people) J.O. of 3.1.80, Paris." (5) MQURET, E. L'alternance. Théorie et application. (Alternation. Theory and practice). Paris, Dossier alternance Centre INFO, 1980. 49The most fundamental criticism one can express with regard to the French experimental alternating educa- tion schemes and to the first tenta- tive regulations (law of the 12th of July, 1980, relating, to the alternat- ing education schemes set up in co-ope- ration with the trade) is their limited nature. The first steps are different not only in view of the number of ac- tions, but because they are limited to the sole vocational training in a bi- polar perspective (firm-school) and to young people with a view to facilitat- ing their passage from school to active life. In a recent document (11), we have shown the retrograde nature of these limitations with regard to a so- cial and economical environment in the course of development. Three statistics on the current French situation state the problem well. Life expectation: BOO to 650,000 hours Remunerated active life: 60 to 80,000 hours Initial training: 25 to 2*5,000 hours (which may,in exceptional cases, reach 30,000 hours) As much as the investment repre- sented by the proportion of initial training in relation to active life could be justified in a society rela- tively stable socially and economically, it is to be questioned in a society where obsolescence is more and more rapid and where change becomes the rule. The logical conclusion based on this fact would be to spread out the education of an individual over his whole life and not to juxtapose a heavy initial education and an active life with some possibilities of subse- quent limited education of short du- ration. For that matter, universities carry on this recycling function at various degrees and without always being aware of this continuous "free" or "wild" education. Pinpoint studies have assessed that the students in- volved in this type of educational process represent 50% of the strength of enrolled students in certain dis- ciplines. According to D. GIRARDDN (12),more than 350,000 students out of some 850,000 enrolled have already entered active life as civil servants (including many teachers), technicians and staff from business and industry, all of whom are trying to improve their qualifications. At a broader level, one can also cast the problem as one of the rela- tion between working time and free time. Some authors go as far as think- ing we are going towards a society of leisure where working time would be- come merely residual (13). It is OECD who, in the seventies, presented a new educational strategy "Recurrent education", which was an attempt to make allowances for changes in the social and economical environment. Presented as a solution to supersede the unlimited expansion of a full-time educational system centered around young people, this new strategy was characterized "by the spreading of education over the whole life of the individual thanks to a kind of nota- tion, i.e. in alternation with other activities such as work ..primarily, but also leisure and retirement...Whatever the precise nature of this alterna- tion, its essential feature is the continuity of study throughout life, which leads to mutual enrichment be- tween the structured experience acquired during alternately recurring educational cycles and the non- structured experience acquired in other social activities" (14). Such a scheme, in our opinion, goes beyond the restrictive approach which considers alternation only as a means of adaptation of "human ma- terial" to prevailing social and eco- nomic standards, in order to inte- grate it into the sole production tasks under the cover of education. Within this framework, universities might have a new and exciting func- tion of continued education. Although we think that such problems are ine- luctable between now and the year 502000, we'know, as well as B.SCHWARTZ [15], that "the implementation of al- ternation goes together with a change • in society". Dur hope is that with the assistance of the new government in- stalled in France since 1981, we may stop projecting yesterday's education- al ideals into the future and will make better allowance for the changes foreseen in society, economy and culture. In this perspective, we should pay more attention to the alternating educational experiments which cer- tainly still favour the domination of traditional forms, but which are a threat for this domination and which prefigure the prevailing structure of the educational system of tomorrow. REFERENCES: (1) Les politiques futures de l'édu- cation et l'évolution économique et sociale (The future policies of education and the economic and social evolution. Paris, OCDE, 1979. (2) Rapport du groupe Emploi-Formation du Vllème Plan (Survey of the group Job-Education of the 7th Plan).Paris, Documentation française, 1981. (3) L'insertion des jeunes dans la vie active. Rapport général. (Insertion of young people in active life. General survey). Paris, OCDE, 1977. (4) Résolution du Conseil des Cornu- • nautês Européennes du 18 décembre 1979 concernant la formation des jeunes en alternance. (Resolution of the Council of European Commu- nittees of 18 December 1979 con- cerning the alternating education of young people) J.O. of 3.1.80, Paris. (5) MOURET, E. L'alternance. Théorie • et application. (Alternation. Theory and practice,). Paris, Dossier alternance Centre INFO, 1980. (6) GIROD DE L'AIN, B. L'enseignement supérieur en alternance (Alter- nating higher education). Actes du Colloque National de Rennes de l'Association d'Etude pour l'Expansion de la Recherche Scientifique. Paris-, Documentation française, 1974. (7) BOUDON, R. Effets pervers et ordre social (Perverse effects and social order). Paris, PUF,1979. (8) BALLIER, A. et MEILHAC, J.G. Formations en alternance. Expé- riences françaises (Alternating education. The French experience). Paris, ADEP, 1980. (9) BOURGEON, G. Vers une elucidation du concept d'alternance (Towards an elucidation 'of the concept of alternation). Magazine of the Centre de Recherches et d'Echanges Universitaires. No.10, 1979. (10) MALGLAIVE, "G. Sommes-nous favo- rables à l'alternance (Are we favourable to alternation). Paris, L'Ecole et la Nation, No.292, 1979. - (11) BESNARD, P. et LIETARD, B. La formation continue (Recurrent education). Paris, PUF, 1982. (12) GIRALDON, D. Enseignement supérieur et formation continue (Higher education and recurrent education). Paris, Formation France, No.37, 1981 (13) SUE, R. Vers une société du temps libre? (Towards a society of leisure?). Paris, PÙF, 1982. (14) L'éducation récurrente (Recurrent education). Paris, OCDE/CERI, 1973. (15) SCHWARTZ, B. Une autre école (Another school). Paris, Flamma- rion, 1977. 51GENERAL INFORMATION ON HIGHER EDUCATION NEW REFORM AND DEVELOPMENT IN ITALIAN UNIVERSITIES Michael ANELLO Professor of higher education at Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts USA Serious development.for univer- sity reform began about 25 years ago when the Minister of Education, Giuseppe Medici introduced to Parlia- ment a plan entitled, "Piano per lo sviluppo della Scuola nel Decennio del 1959-69". Commonly referred to as Italy's ten year plan its purpose was to provide increased financial support and educational development and re- form. It called for an increase in teaching personnel, more buildings, research, and a better relationship between the university and Italian Society. Previously criticized for its elitism and for admitting a few, the universities began feeling the pressure by 1970 when enrolment increased by 5%. This increase confirmed the need for more buildings, teachers, scholar- ships and an updated curricula to fit the needs of a changing society, more- over there was a growing interest among university rectors, faculty members, students, business and industrial leaders and the general public concerning the university and its medieval structure. Enrolments continued to climb. The combined universities of Rome, Naples, and Milan numbered 100,000 students. The demand for more in- structors, adequate facilities and research made the need for new legis- lation more urgent. The nenewal of student political power was imminent. Students became aware of their poli- tical power. Demonstrations, strikes, and riots were frequent. Students be- gan to regard the political system with mistrust and disdain. Student ac- tivity in Italy has always been con- fined to a small percentage of students. But the passage of a new law affect- ing them was too important to be l.eft to the few. At the close of the 60's we began to see more visible forms of activity with more students partici- pating. Their demands were manifested by street demonstrations, strikes, picket signs and the like.. Students made it clear that they had a legiti- mate, and powerful voice in the af- fairs of the university. Little pro- gress was made but it was clear that the universities in Italy needed to be changed. One must note here that troubled political life in Italy has left a negative mark on the university. Par- ties have changed consistently bring- ing different points of view to uni- versity reform, never arriving at a consensus and never answering the needs of an industrial society in evolution. Looking at the political system in Italy may shed more light on the slow progress for reform. Italy has a multiparty system composed of nine parties. The three largest major par- ties which gain over 80% of the na- tional vote are the Christian Demo- crats, the Italian Communist and the Italian Socialist Party. Each party views government policy from a dif- ferent perspective. It is difficult, therefore, to form a majority vote on a specific issue like university reform. 52During the 60's and early 70's the demand for reform gained momentum and critics complained about the uni- versities remaining in the medieval tradition. Other criticisms came from industrial leaders complaining that the curricula was cumbersome and stu- dents interest was stifled. Jobs were available but people to fill them were not. It confirmed once again that it was evident that the structure and function of contemporary society in Italy was not consistent with the de- mands of a modern society. Some con- tinued to criticize the archaic form of the universities. The government began to feel the external and internal pressure and on July 11, 1980 passed new legislation for Italian universi- ties and reform. The development of the new plan promises to benefit both professors and students. 1. More students are allowed to attend the university regardless of what secondary schools they graduated from. The system previously has been dominated by humanistic studies. Now this has changed because of open access. Students can attend any uni- versity with a certificate from any secondary level. 2. The university reform foresees an increase of 46,000 professors to handle the bulging number of students. 3. Great efforts will be made to return the Italian universities to research func- tions. The purpose here is an attempt to copy the graduate study at the German Universities. To accomplish this the new law will bring in 16,000' more researchers, recent graduates who will eventually be given tenure if confirmed by a national commission. 4. There will be two professional titles: Full professor Cordinarius) and Associate Professor (associate). These are direct copies of titles in the United States. 5. Each professor must devote at least 250 hours a year to teaching and student counselling. This is a radical change from previous functions. Students received little or no coun- selling and it was common for profes- sors to begin class 15 minutes late and end 15 minutes early. Most stu- dents expected this. It is called quattro ova académico. 6. Other factors concerned the mal-distribution of Italy's 41 uni- versities. There is no university in the South Tirol region. A teacher's college in this area could prepare teachers. There is no school of medi- cine in Trieste. As a result, there is overcrowding at Padua which is suffering from lack of space. A school of business could be established in Modena to absorb the overflow from Bologna. The Marcha region lacks a school of medicine and a school of architecture. There is no institution which trains teachers in Umbria. The law has made provision, however for these areas by building the new uni- versity of Calabria in 1962. Hope- fully, the new reforms will do more. The new legislation has done much to improve the quality of uni- versities in Italy but some critics say that it was not broad enough and has not really solved the urgent problems which need attention. It is ironic that Italy which was first to establish universities (Bologna and Salerno) models for the world, has had such difficulty re- structuring and reforming its own present day universities. Hopefully, the new reforms will bring out the new adjustments the system needs. REFERENCES Anello, M- Student Political Behaviour in Italy . School and Societyj Nov. 9, 1968, p.408. Anello, M; Trends in Italian Higher Education . School and Societyj Summer, 1966, p.272. Calo, G. L'univers-ita in Rapporto alle nuovo struttura sd 53Esigenze délia Société contemporánea Annali delta Pubblica Istruzione, Jan-Feb. 1964. Edwards, E.G. An Analytical View of Student Trends in Western Europe , Higher Education in Europe, CEPES, Bucharest, July-Sept. 1981, p.44. Pigantelli, P. -Currents and Crisis in Italian Higher Education" in: Altbach, Ph. (Ed.) The Universities Response to Societal Demands, New York: International Council for Edu- cational Development, 1975. Santoni, R. XI Prof essore neila Scuola Italiana, Florence, Nuovo Italiano, 1973. Walsh, J. Italian Universities: Reform indefinitely delayed', Science, August, 1961, p.451. La Reforma e La Struttura délia Univer- sité Italiana, Legge 283 Decree 382, Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione, Rome, 1980. FINANCING UNIVERSITY EDUCATION IN BRITAIN T.A.OWEN Registrar The University College of Wales, Aberystwyth, Wales, UK The relationship between univer- sities and society is perhaps too often discussed in financial terms. Questions such as grants, student fees and ac- countability, can be comprehended by the public and by politicians. National needs can be quantified, they believe, and the price for meeting these needs negotiated with the universities. This article discusses these topics: 1. The sources and application of university funds. 2. The University Grants Committee - recurrent finance. 3. The University Grants Committee - non-recurrent finance. 4. Accountability of universities. 5. Awards to students. 1. The sources and application of university funds Appended are tables which col- late published figures on university finance in Great Britain. 1920-21 is chosen as the first year, si'nce this was the first full year in which the new University Grants Committee (UGC) managed to align most universities' accounting year and analysis. Endowments Endowments and other gifts by benefactors have always played a Key role in the development of universi- ties. The older universities could indeed live on fee and endowment in- come until this century. The benefac- tor has continued until the present to feature in universities' finance: early UGC reports noted munificient gifts from individuals and trusts. The Chancellor of the Exchequer noted in 1918: 'It is obvious that in all cases before local support can be taken into account the Committee must approve the purposes for which it is to be applied'. The UGC agreed ".... the principle is recognized that be- nefactions are only to be taken into account in the allocation of Parlia- mentary grant when the object meets with approval". Once the principle of matching grants was dropped as a pos- sible basis of State support the UGC note changed to one of encouragement. By 1948, for example, the UGC could note that precisely benefactors could be sought for purposes not approved by the Exchequer: '. . . if a univer- sity feels impelled to expenditure on purposes for which financial support from the Exchequer is not forthcoming, its remedy is to find a private bene- factor to supply the need' . Universities were alive to the risk that conditions imposed by a benefactor might achieve the reverse, by restrict- ing autonomy. The UGC wisely set out 54in 1970 guidelines for universities, to encourage gifts but to maintain a proper balance. Fees Interest in fees as a component of university income increased sharply when fees were raised in 1977-78, to levels which might provide 23% of uni- versity income, but fees have always been of great concern. The proportion has varied over the years and came un- der early scrutiny by the UGC. Fees assumed an increasing importance, ac- counting 1937-38 for 32% of institu- tional expenditure. After the war the percentage declined, reaching 5% in 1973-74. The Robbins Committee recom- mended in 1963 that the process be reversed: "We recommended that the level of fees be revised so that in future they meet at least 20 per cent of current institutional expenditure. Some of us would prefer to see the proportion greater'. The Committee went on to suggest how this principle could be met, but the* time-bomb primed in 1963 exploded in 1967 when higher fees for overseas students were introduced: The Robbins Report, which started this process, had been careful to state that 'We do not suggest that a higher fee be charged to overseas than to other stu- dents' . Fees continued to be discussed: in 1967 the UGC jointly with the Com- mittee of Vice-Chancellors and Prin- cipals (CVCP) reported on this matter after a rigorous examination of the concept of the fee. The working party had considered arguments on the one hand for the abolition of the fee, and on the other for an increase based on 'economic price'. By 1976 it was common ground that 'Exchequer grants to universities are in the form of 'deficiency grants', i.e. all the uni- versities' income from sources such as fees or endowments is taken into ac- count in determining the grant so that the legal freedom of the universities to increase fees is offset by the fact that an increase in fee income would be followed by a diminution in grant'. This made an argument for abolition of fees attractive, but the working party noted many objections. Local Authority Contributions Local authorities now play a key part in university finance by the awards (including grants for fees) which are made to students, mainly mandatory under the Education Art, 1962, but sometimes discretionary. These points are briefly noted: 1. Universities have come to depend on local authorities for only half of one per cent of their income. One effect of the imposition of cash limits in public spending has been to reduce considerably the contri- butions from local authorities. 2. Earlier figures, in the 1920s and 1930s, are inflated by contribu- tions to scholarship funds. It was also important at that time to show to the Treasury evidence of strong local support. As newer uni- versities have moved from being local or regional to being national or international establishments, less emphasis has been placed on local support as a condition of Treasury grant. Local support, for non-recurrent and recurrent purposes, was important to bids for siting the new universities in the 1960s. 2. The University Grants Committee - recurrent finance The scale of grants distributed on the recommendation of the UGC is shown in the. table on page 61 . This section discusses two features of the UGC arrangement: the principle of the block grant and the former quinquennial system. Both are regarded as distinc- tive in the British system, established from the beginning by benevolent Go- vernments anxious to preserve the au- tonomy of universities. The origin of both features is somewhat more mundane, and the deviations from the pure 55principles were many. The block grant principle first came under discussion in 1908. The first grants from 1889 onwards were confined to work in arts and science, excluding medicine and engineering. The first permanent advisory committee earmarked 10% of the grant for books and equipment. By 1908, however, grants were given on a block basis. After both World Wars earmarking of grants was introduced for a time. In 1921-22, for example, grants were made for special- ized departments in Liverpool University (Oceanography], London University [Institute of Historical Research), Imperial College (Aeronautics,^ Techni- cal Optics), Kings College (Slavonic Studies) and University College (Galton Laboratory, Phonetics). This«list did not, however, increase, and reference to the earmarked grants ceases from 1925-26 onwards. There were, of course, earmarked grants from Government funds other than those with which the UGC dealt, for example grants in aid of agricul- tural education from the Board of Agriculture since 1889. The main movement in the 1940s and 1950s was in the other direction, towards earmarking. National needs were brought into prominence by many reports, each in turn advocating ear- marked grants for universities which met the national needs. One of these reports, on Medical Education, made this statement: "We hope that ultimately the Univer- sity Grants Committee, in distribut- ing recurrent grants, may be able to follow its normal practice of making block grants; but we consider that for a short period it would be ad- visable for the additional grants to universities for medical educa- tion and research to be separated, so far as possible, from the block grant for the rest of the universi- ties' activities'." The earmarking of grants proceeded apace, but the UGC's reports for the period maintain the principle that the earmarked grants were a temporary ex- pedient. In 1952 earmarked grants were discontinued in general, after they reached their peak in 1951-52, accounting for as much as 30.7% of the total recurrent grants. A new wave of earmarking came in for 1962- 67. The earmarking of grants in 1967-72 was at a much lower level and can now be regarded as exceptional. The indication, by earmarking, of areas to be favoured has been sup- planted to some extent by the Memo- randa of Guidance increasingly issued by the UGC. Earmarked grants can be expected to return only if new, ex- pensive developments are initiated. The UGC and, thereby, the Government have indeed departed frequently from the principle of the block grant, by earmarking, but it is remarkable thst the earmarked grants have consistently been merged into the block grant within a very short period. The Quinquennium is a feature which is claimed to date back to 1889. The official UGC account notes that 'The Treasury thought that it would not be desirable to alter the amount of the subsidies with such fre- quency as to produce constant uncer- tainty, though at the same time they did not want to stereotype the sub- sidies for too long or to discourage local incentive'. The Treasury minute therefore proposed that the grant of fe15,000 should be liable to be reviewed every five years. The UGC inherited this quinquen- nial basis in 1919, but did not suc- ceed in establishing a regular quin- quennial rhythm until 1924-29. The economic crisis extended the next quinquennium by one year, and the Second World War put off quinquennial grants until 1947-52. The quinquen~- nium then remained the basis of Treasury recurrent grant until the late 1970s, it was, however, much dis- cussed at various times, not least by 56the UGC. The quinquennium 1947-52 saw a large increase in ad hoc grants made during the quinquennium. This is illus- trated by these figures: Original Ultimate provision total pro- vision 1947-48 km 9.00 9.16 1951-52 km 11.92 16.71 The large increase was, however, still caused by identifiable specific items, such as additions for medical educa- tion, or the foundation of the Univer- sity College of North Staffordshire. Already, however, the Committee noted that 'as the quinquennium progressed universities found increasing diffi- culties despite the exercise of strict economy'. In 1952-57 the quinquennium, came under further strain, as inflation took its toll. Despite the lack of full supplementation, overall univer- sities spent k1,088,000 less than their income. The wave-like motion in university expenditure was one major difficulty in the quinquennium. Other difficulties were discussed in detail in the UGCs report for 1962-67: 'There are three main weaknesses in the quinquennial system - its inabi- lity to meet major and expensive un- predictable needs arising during the quinquennium, the eroding effect of rising prices on quinquennial allo- cations, and the failure to provide a sufficient overlap between the last year or years of one quinquen- nium and the opening years of the next'. The quinquennium, it is clear, initially offered certainty to both the universities and the Treasury. The universities were assured of money for five years, no small benefit at a time when they lived from hand to mouth. The Treasury were assured of a respite from demands for increases. This was still the crude basis of the universities' financial relationship to the State. The advantages set out had, however, become inextricably tied up with concepts of university autonomy and freedom. Those concepts led uni- versities to cling to the quinquen- nium with increasing exasperation as they paid the price for this. Inflation remained the major problem, and supplementary grants could not avoid an erosion in the value of grants. Arrangements were agreed with the Government to overcome this problem in 1972-77. Taking a price level at January 1973 as a base for the quinquennial grant, movements in the index of costs would be assessed, the Government undertaking, unless there were exceptional diffi- culties, to give automatically grants for the rest of the quinquennium representing 50 per cent of that needed fully to compensate for infla- tion and to give careful considera- tion to a claim for full compensation. On the whole this ingenious formula satisfied the universities, and it was applied 100% in 1973-74. For 1974-75 50% of the supplementation and later 100% was withdrawn because of the need for economy in public ex- penditure (some of the later cuts being restored by two supplementary grants). In 1975-76 full supplementa- tion was restored, but confidence had not been restored, and universities had lost their 'adequate planning horizon'. This was still seen a year later as the major loss, though the decline in the value of income per student [recurrent grants, furniture and equipment grant and fee income) amounted to 13% over the quinquennium. The imposition of cash limits on all Government activities has undermined the value of announcements of grants for a period ahead, since universities have lost all certainty that grants for future years expressed in current cost terms will be supplemented to take account fully of inflation. Without that certainty long-term plan- ning is too risky, unless large re- serves are accumulated. Such a pru- dent policy brings with it, however, a risk that resources will be seen as evidence of affluence. The quinquen- nial system is effectively dead, and universities have little certainty in forward planning. 573. University Grants Committee - non- recurrent grants In this section 'non-recurrent grants' is a phrase used in the sense of grants for building and associated expenditure. Until 1946 the State did not undertake to provide buildings for universities. Benefactors were the main source of money, and their contribu- tions were munificent. There were oc- casional Treasury grants for building: for example, in 1923-29 the Exchequer provided fe500,000, in a period when private donors gave fe3,320,000. In the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century founders of the newer university institutions had sufficient faith to borrow capital funds if ne- cessary. The predecessors of the UGC and the UGC in turn, noted this burden of debt, and urged the institutions to set up sinking funds. It was clear, however, that the Treasury grants would not pay for buildings by the back door, since the cost of sinking funds could not be met from Treasury grant. The idea of a match between Treasury and local support, with local capital contributions counting in the equation, lingered in the air. Thus, in 1930 the UGC calculated that an al- lowance of 5% for capital expenditure during 1923-29 would mean that "it could be argued that Local Sources have more than kept pace with Parlia- mentary Grants'. The situation did not, however, change in essence until the Second World War. In March 1944, with talk of the Reconstruction Period in the air, the UGC received from the uni- versities an estimate of their needs for sites, buildings and fitments. Noting that these amounted to fe2B mil- lion in 1938-39 costs, the CVCP re- commended that, taking account of in- creased numbers, the 1946 figure should be fe80 million in 1947 figures. The great expansion in State support of capital programmes raised almost immediately questions of principle on the relationship of universities to society as represented by the State. Two questions were raised by Parlia- ment's Estimates Committee: account- ability and standards. The first price for massive State capital grants was access by the Comptroller and Auditor General to books and universities. The second price was assurance that due economy had been observed. After the report of a special Committee in 1956, the UGC concluded that universities were on the whole economical and re- commended detailed arrangements. This seemed to satisfy the Public Accounts Committee CPAC) on this point, but left the question of accountability. 4. Accountability of Universities The post-1946 increase in Trea- sury grants to universities made it inevitable that Parliament should seek eventually a greater measure of ac- countability. The Public Accounts Com- mittee CPAC) concerned with the legality of expenditure already incurred, and the Select Committee on Estimates (Estimates Committee), concerned with efficient and economical use of public money, would sooner or later have been led to examine the large Treasury vote for the Universities. The PAC began its concern with the universities in 1946 when the Com- mittee revived an earlier 1930s dis- cussion on the statutory authority for certain grants, including those to the universities. There was no enabling legislation which covered the votes, merely the authority of annual Appro- priation Acts. The PAC formally agreed in 1950 that they would not pursue the matter further. The discussion did, however, bring up these points which illustrate the close relationship in dealing with the State, between ac- countability and university freedom: a. It would not be sufficient to make the UGC a statutory body. The UGCs position was anomalous but that was not the root of the lack of statu- tory authority for grants. b. The more extended legislation re- quired would inevitably encroach upon universities' autonomy, since an Act would have to determine how to define criteria for allocating grant. 58c. The Treasury spokesman. Sir Edward Bridges, argued strongly the case that Universities were sui genevis3 in a position of autonomy which was unique and justified. The root cause of the problem is that the early grants to universities were ad hoc3 not intended to become a continuing commitment. Indeed, one of the origins of the quinquennium was to set a limit to the Treasury's com- mitment. Since the theory was that no continuing commitment (beyond five years) had been created, no enabling legislation was required. The reason given by the Treasury to the PAC for continuing this situation were valid, by 1946-50, but they were not in the mind of the Treasury when grants were first made. The two Committees made unremit- ting efforts to attain limited accoun- tability. The principle of a Grant- in-aid did not preclude the supply of information to Parliament, it was argued. By 1951-52 new arrangements had been made to provide Parliament with information. The arrangements have developed in later years, and if by accountability is meant a post hoc statement, it is probable that no complaint would be made in future of lack of information. The PAC and Estimates Committee turned to the question of inspection by the Comptroller and Auditor-Genera] of the books and accounts of the UGC and of universities in respect of non- recurrent grants. The two Committees saw a possible distinction, since 'this money is voted annually for spe- cific purposes'. An examination of such grants would not affect university freedom, since they were not free to spend this money except on specific capital project. The PAC in particular persisted and the Treasury continued to resist. The UGC firmly resisted the suggestion, summarising in 1964 the argument which had continued for thir- teen years: '351 . . . We fear that access by the Comptroller and Auditor General to our records or to those of the universities would raise a real danger of interference with the Committee's control of building programmes and ultimately with academic freedom, since the Comptroller and Auditor General, and in turn Parliament, might then feel it necessary to raise questions about the need for parti- cular buildings, priorities between buildings and even the academic ac- commodation requirements to be pro- vided in such buildings. We believe that direct access to the accounts relating to the expenditure of ca- pital grants would lead to a demand for the direct scrutiny of grants for recurrent expenditure and conse- quently direct interference by the Treasury, by the Public Accounts Committee and by Parliament in mat- ters which we feel should be left to determination by ourselves and the universities'. There was no doubt, however, that the pressure of the PAC and Estimates Com- mittee had resulted in many changes of practice, and the sum of these changes might have been regarded as a reason- able answer, while not acknowledging that non-recurrent grants were in a different category in which full ac- countability to Parliament applied. The PAC « and Estimates Committee were not, however, prepared to let matters rest. The final steps were taken in 1967. In July 1967 the Secretary of State for Education and Science an- nounced "that this large item of Govern- ment expenditure, which has risen over the last twenty years from t4 million per annum to well over fe200 million can no longer continue to be the sole major exception to the normal require- ments of Parliament regarding scrutiny and report by the Comptroller and Auditor General. Accordingly I shall make it, from 1st January 1968, a con- dition of grant to universities that their books and records in respect of grant should be open to the inspection of the Comptroller and Auditor General. The same will apply to the books and 59records of the University Grants Com- mittee. The Accounting Officer arrange- ments will remain as at present". The accountability of universi- ties to Parliament has thus ceased to be a live issue. From the history of the issue during the twenty year struggle, 1946-67, these conclusions may be drawn: a. It is possible to rely heavily on State money without accepting pro- cedures and controls which confirm to Parliament that proper use is being made of money in an economi- cal manner. b. Accountability can be reconciled with autonomy. Many years of scru- tiny by the Comptroller and Auditor General have not produced any re- corded public instance of alleged interference in academic policy. c. The discussion should have sharpened universities' awareness of two features of university finance which are unusual if not unique. Firstly, the lack of statutory au- thority for the grants-in-aid avoids much of the control to which State enterprises are subject. Secondly, despite variations from the quinquennial plan, universities do have more flexibility than most organisations supported by the State, for example in their freedom to accumulate and carry forward re- serves. True accountability to so- ciety for its financial support lies, not in compliance with rules and systems or avoidance of mal- practice, but rather in enlightened use of resources to advance the interests of scholarship and higher education. However careful the checks on financial probity, the true audit of performance is by its nature most difficult at the level of academic endeavour. 5. Awards to students The subject of awards to stu- dents is one which touches most nearly members of society in their relationship to universities. When the Education Act, 1962 made awards for undergraduate study mandatory, a pro- cess was completed which has a long and interesting history. Since the Royal Commission of 1852 the State had interested itself in awards. The major steps in developing the system of awards were: 1902 Local Authorities granted powers (extended in 1907 and 1918 by further Aets of Parliament] to make awards. 1911 Board of Education four-year awards for intending teachers intro- duced. 1920 State Scholarships instituted, initially limited to 200 annually. State and the local authorities thus joined in a partnership to make awards available. Once again the history of universities' financial arrangements illustrates how fine is the balance between advantage and in- jury to principles of autonomy. Society, in paying the piper, is al- ways at risk of calling the tune, and examples are now given. Firstly, any awards system could influence the distribution of students among universities. Uniform grants led to mobility. The UGC regretted the tendency for a small number of institutions to 'cream off the best students, but saw no remedy. In 1960 the Anderson Committee did not wish to restrict students' choice, and deplored the Scottish Bursaries Regulations, which allowed an education authority to limit the amount of grant to what would have been paid if the student had attended a nearby institution where the cost would have been less. The conditions on which under- graduate grants were made had one direct effect in the most sacrosanct area of university autonomy - the curriculum. Up to the late 1950s most 60oC O1 CDIS. CD Ooo-U mC D• 0 1 O CMOO3COCM C D inCO C O oC M tn a C O C M v O co co C D «»• C D C O C D in rs, C M C O IS.I CMrs. C D O V Oo C O C O r- rs. C O T - * C M C O C O1 CMCO CD ooo C O i n• C D i n CDinCOcoCOCD*CO CO i ni CMmOl Ooo in i n C D IS. C O C O o t n i n22,396, CD C Din,575. CO IS. CM,765 CO oIS.,600 oCOCMrsCO,970 CD C O rs.315,744 CO C Oors t n t n i n t n C O C Mco «j- c o CM C DCD i n i n CM C M T - C O IS. C O oC M CO i n68,499. CO ¿ ,341 CMCO t n389. CM C D C O1 COCO C Dr- aoo COT- cooCM C D C OaCO CDCM999 CO07B i n C MCM- C O i n C O tn400, is.in498, CM CM C O in IS. m cotgai aO C MI OC M C D O «- Oo C M C O C M C O ai in C O C O C O C D IS . C D C O co rs. T - C M C O C D C D U l rs. ^ - C M C O 4 - C O C M C O C D C O C O C O is. C O C D C O co co CO O * * CO f rs v o C O C M T - c o t, u c a o 4> I C H e t» E O E •ri +J +J CD 3 c ( c -p ri + + c (-, c D t, c -p œ 15oQ.» - C M X • • LU C M C M CM 61local authorities restricted their grants to students accepted for honours courses. The effect was that more and more universities gave direct admis- sion to honours courses, until this became almost universal, except in Scotland and Wales. Finally, the relationship of uni- versities and society is changed in terms of responsibility. As the Ander- son Committee noted, an automatic right to an award consequent upon ad- mission gives great responsibility to the admitting university or college. The Committee thought that this was right, as 'the freedom of the univer- sities, and in particular their right to select their own students, must be preserved. The system of awards could have been a powerful instrument in the hands of a State which wished to con- trol universities. For example, the 'bonded' student system operated from 1911 for students on a four-year course in teacher training departments attached to university institutions. Grants were conditional upon the sig- nature of a declaration .of an intention to follow the profession of teacher. In Britain the pledge, though long established for teachers, was specifically ruled out in the 1940s as a means of securing a supply of dentists or veterinary scientists. A discussion in the 1960 revived in the 1970s, of substituting, in part or in whole, loans for grants was e- equally unreal, and is not summarised here, as the issues are complex. GENERAL SYSTEM OF INFORMATION ON STUDENTS AT OUEBEC UNIVERSITY Grant REGALBUTO Director of co-ordination of student records, Quebec University with the collaboration of Antoine Giroux The interest in available com- parative and coherent statistics on different student bodies is no longer a matter for debate, whether it's a question of comparing student numbers connected with several educational establishments or producing coherent data on the whole body of students at a specific level of education, this type of data constitutes an essential tool in the planification and adminis- tration of educational systems. However, to produce such sta- tistics in allowing them a degree of acceptable feasability raises unfore- seen, complex difficulties, even within the framework of establishments dependent on a common jurisdiction. Basically, two kinds of factors can affect the accuracy of this informa- tion: - those that stem from the study sys- tem or, as the case may be, study systems in force in the institutions, and those that are related to the admin- istrative system of student records. It is therefore difficult to compile significant data on the stu- dents enrolled full time in several establishments if the standards which define this type of student (for example a given number of credits) are not completely identical. At a higher level, on the natio- nal or international scale for example, the differences and particularities of educational systems in the various states, provinces, and countries etc. add to the different regulations and technical problems. The Canadian model well illus- trates the impact of these particula- rities on the value of certain data of national importance. In Canada, each province has its own educational system and if, as a general rule, the baccalauréat (uni- versity primary level diploma!) corres- ponds everywhere to sixteen years' 62schooling, the division of these years into educational levels (primary, secondary, university) differs from one system to another. Thus, in the Quebec system, there is a level of intermediary education between secondary and university, namely the college level. This parti- cularity makes the "normal" time for completing a baccalauréat .full-time three year in Quebec after College; whereas it is four years after second- ary level in the other provinces. In this context, the value accorded to comparative data for all Canadian stu- dents enrolled for a university primary level programme -is relative since it does not take into account the exis- tence of the colleges in Quebec. However, in spite of these dif- ficulties considered by some insuper- able, it is possible, by exercising some control, to produce uniform sta- tistical data of sufficient accuracy on the students attached to several educational centres. The experience acquired at Quebec University in this field illus- trates in what way these obstacles can be overcome. This document thus en- deavours to give a description of the different mechanisms set up at Quebec University to ensure the production of coherent statistics regrouping the students in each of its establish- ments. Quebec University comprises a network of university educational and research establishments; it comprises ten component units: - four universities offering general studies: the University of Quebec in Chicoutimi (U.Q.A.C.), the Uni- versity of Quebec in Montreal (U.Q.A.M.), the University of Quebec in Rimouski (U.Q.A.R.) and the University of Quebec in Trois- Rivières (U.Q.T.R.); - two research institutes: the National Institute of Scientific Research (I.N.R.S.) and the Armand-Frappier Institute (I.A.F. three colleges: the School of Higher Technology (E.T.S.), the National School of Public Administration (E.N.A.P.) and the Centre of Uni- versity Studies in West Quebec (C.E.U.O.Q.); [The C.E.U.O.Q. offers general studies). - another establishment: the Tele- university (T.E.L.U.Q.). The^e centres are spread over the whole of the Quebec region. Each,component unit of the net- work enjoys important pedagogic and administrative autonomy which is shown in different ways. Four significant examples can be cited for the purposes of this study. Each institution establishes its own study system, prepares its own syllabuses, establishes and manages its own administrative system of stu- dent records and assumes responsibi- lity for acceptance and registration. Furthermore, the majority of these centres have their own computerized system. However, in order to ensure a minimum of coherence, certain general standards are uniformly applied in all the centres of the network. They consist, in particular, of a principal system of studies and a uniform ge- neral structure of syllabuses. More- over, it reverts, in the supreme in- stance of Quebec University, to the Board of Governors, to award the di- plomas on the recommendation of the component units. A. Principles (established) The principles underlying the relative operations of student enu- meration at Quebec University aim at ensuring: - comptability - coherence - validity of the data from several sources. The analysis of experience on latter years has seen the emergence of four general principles which govern these operations: 631. the recording, in each of the operat- ional systems of the component units, of data which complies with identically defined standards of classification and validation and which aim at ensuring the respect for general pedagogic organisational rules which apply to each establish- ment; 2. the periodical collection of data from the card-indexes of the opera- tional administrative systems of student records in each component centre; 3. the transfer of these data to a central department of the University of Quebec on a standardized speci- fied format; 4. the production of official reports on the students from these data alone, observing the following rules: - based on the study systems in force; - compatible with professional ethical principles; - consistent with the information supplied by the Quebec Ministry of Education (1). B. Operational Systems The operational system which ensures the administration of student records incorporates the support of the academic and pedagogic administra- tion of a teaching establishment. This system records the students' charac- teristics, the data concerning accept- ance and registration, equivalences, evaluation as well as information ne- cessary for the granting of diplomas. Each centre in the network has its own system of administration of student records which, in the majority of cases, is standardized. Each in- stitution is thus responsible for the establishment, development, maintenance, utilization and exploitation of its own system. From the start, the existence of several administrative systems posed a problem of coherence of data within the framework of operations relative to the enumeration of student numbers and to ths production of official statistics on all the students in the network. Several avenues have been ex- plored to solve these difficulties. It might have been possible to*pro- duce these s-tatistics without using the existing operational systems. Moreover, this procedure would have implied that the component centres periodically dispatch data to Quebec University, by the expedient of par- ralel systems of collection of infor- mation. Besides making for more work in the component centres, this method risks altering the value of the pro- cessing of data with the addition of a supplementary stage, and simulta- neously causes the production of in- coherent and non verifiable statistics. It has therefore been agreed to draw directly on the various adminis- trative systems of student records in the component units for the data needed in the production of official statistics on the students at Quebec University. The diagram on page 65 shows how the complete system of the produc- tion of statistics functions. Let's remember that two of the component units do not have a computerized admin- istrative system of student records in view of the small number of stu- dents they receive. It concerns the I.N.R.S. with fewer than fifty [50) students and the I.A.F. with fewer than ten (10) students. C. Data Elements Whichever system is used the degree of statistical accuracy is directly related to the kind of proces- sing the raw data receives. Like any abstraction, statistical representa- tion is inevitably less accurate than real facts even when it results from as simple an operation as the collec- tion of entities which comply with identical parameters. 64General System Diagram Operational system of a component unit Extraction of elements of the minimum total Í Tape of transfer Transfer Validation Fusion of data with other component units Official data on clientèle of University of Quebec 65But if this processing necessi- tates, besides a regrouping, a conver- sion of basic data to make them compa- tible, the degree of resulting inaccu- racy could well attain an unacceptable level. Now, even if a relative lack of accuracy must be conceded as such from the start, it must not reach a high level within the limits of operations concerning the enumeration of students. Indeed, this information is used es- pecially for the University's financial purposes. The diversity of administrative systems used in the component centres could have affected the accuracy of the total statistics of Quebec Univer- sity necessitating many conversion and accumulation operations of the basic data. That is why, in order to easily obtain compatible data, from each source, it has been agreed to insert into each operational system, and for each individual, a certain number of standard elements of information, called "minimal ensemble" These elements comply with uni- form rules of definition, classifica- tion and validation. This procedure avoids, amongst other inconveniences, the need for making difficult informa- tion conversions, removes problems of interpretation of results and ensurea an optimal degree of accuracy in the production of statistics since the data used need not be amassed nor converted. Thus, in terms of data informa- tion, the administrative system of Quebec University is distinguished by the transfer, from the component units to the central corporation, of unpro- cessed information data, on each stu- dent, which complies with identical standards of definition, classifica- tion and validation. D, Format of Transfer As previously indicated, the ma- jority of the component units are en- dowed with a computerized administra- tive system of student records. These different systems have been devised for the specific needs of the centres and comply with the basic data ele- ments mentioned above. Consequently, the structure of the operational sys- tems varies from one unit to another according to their particular require- ments. Furthermore, each Centre can (totally or partially] maintain the administration of student records by using its own computer, and/or the central computer of the University of Quebec or again it can use the compu- ter services of an external enterprise (such as another educational institu- tion, a hospital centre etc.). Several types of computers (the present arrangement is under revision, in several cases, mini-computers will be used] have been, are and will be used for this purpose in the network of the University of Quebec: - University of Quebec in Montreal and Tele-University: Digital Equip- ment Company: DEC-10 - University of Quebec in Chicoutimi: Xerox Sigma - University of Quebec in Trois- Rivières: CDC-CYBER 171 (formerly it was a CDC 330) - National School of Public Administra- tion: IBH-370 and language APL - University of Quebec in Rimouski, Centre of University Studies in West Quebec and School of Higher Technology, the CDC-CYBER 73 and the CYBER 171 of the general centre of the computerized network. Initially, the data necessary for the production of the total sta- tistics was transmitted on tapes from 66the different computers which main- tained the student records in each Centre. This procedure involved the conversion of these tapes into a spe- cified format compatible with the cen- tral computer, by the computerized Centre of Quebec University. It caused a great deal of extra work and consi- derable delays in the production of data. In view of the large number of data transfers at each term and the fixed dates for the production of official statistics it soon became, clear that this procedure needed modification. Indeed, the regulations jointly established by those responsible in the central corporation as well as in the component units anticipate two transfers of data concerning accept- ances and two concerning registrations, each term. The dates fixed for the produc- tion of reports are established as follows: the final report on accept- ances and a preliminary report on re- gistration must be produced one and a half months after the term's offi- cial opening. The final report, on re- gistration is published two months after the end of term. This informa- tion is used for different purposes, notably for the internal distribution of the institutions's budget. All these restrictions have given rise to a new mode of data transfer. According to this new device, information is now transferred on tapes whose format and specifications have been determined by those respon- sible at Quebec University. These re- quirements uniformly apply to all data transfers from the different centres which relate to the student applicants. It consists of a standard- ized card index for the transfer of data information derived from the different operational systems (2). In order to ensure coherence in the data from several, sources, a pro- cedure of validation of this informa- tion has been, necessary in the system. This procedure, jointly deve- loped by those responsible in the establishemnts, comprises a valida- tion with three checks which is car- ried out at the general centre. The first, basically technical, ascertains that the tape is compatible with the computer. For the second check, each piece of information is verified to see if it is complete or not, or co- dified in the correct form [alphabe- tical or numerical], or not. It can thus be verified whether the regis- tered students have been previously accepted and whether the identical programmes have been officially approved etc. All these validation controls are published in the official pro- cedures and are sent to the whole of the network. E. Official Reports In order to ensure the credibi- lity of the data produced with the technique described above, it has been agreed that only the reports pre- pared in this way can be considered valid and official. Before this system was estab- lished, it was often noted in the reports prepared by various services that there were differences in the total number of students enrolled for the same course, at the same time. This situation gave rise to a certain frustration for those who produced the reports and for those who had to make the decisions at the highest level. In order to reduce these dif- ficulties and make the new system rigid, it has been established that there is now only one source of data on student applicants: that is, the general system of information on the students at Quebec University. Notes: (1) It should be noted that the Mi- nistry of Education supplies the 67universities with almost all their financial resources to ensure their functioning and development. (2) The transfer of data by the Armand- Frappier Institute and the National Institute of Scientific Research is by way of student lists and not by a computerized card index on account of the small number of students. ACADEMIC COUNSELLING IN THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY: 10 PILOT SCHEMES EVALUATED Klaus-Dieter GRUNWALD Federal Ministry for Education and Science, Bonn, FRG 1. Institutionalized academia counsel- ling in the Federal Republic of Germany since the early '70s University teachers have been providing academic counselling virtually since universities were first estab- lished. However, academic counselling by full-time academic counsellors is a new task assumed only in recent years by universities. It was not provided in the FRG to any appreciable extent until some time during the early seventies. In this respect, the development of academic counselling should be re- garded in close connection with the development of higher educational po- licy in the FRG. The following changes in the general conditions of higher education particularly helped to achieve an improved atmosphere for counselling policy in the seventies and eighties: - in the FRG, student numbers qua- drupled between 1960 and 1980(in 1960: 269,000; in 1970: 482,000; in 1980: 986,000 students]; - excessively long periods of study at universities Con average, 5 to 6 years); - a high percentage of students switching to other study disciplines, and a higher percentage of drop-outs; - diminished career opportunities for graduates. During the seventies, countless opinions and recommendations from both government and non-government sources stressed the necessity of aca- demic counselling services. The Federal Government made the following statement in this respect in its "1970 Report on Education Policy": "Academic counselling must be permanently improved without delay. As in other countries, academic coun- selling is intended to comprise not only general counselling regarding study aptitude and study goals, but also - in view of current enrolment restrictions - to help draw students' attention to other branches of study which match their interests and ta- lents and, .which offer excellent ca- reer opportunities". The Federal Go- vernment's report also points out that study courses are also to be shortened with the help of academic counselling. The Bund-Länder Commission for Educational Planning and Research Promotion (BLK.) emphasized the follow- ing priorities of academic counselling in the 1973 General Plan for Educa- tion: - Information via educational courses, - individual counselling using diag- nostic methods, - assistance in individual cases to counteract learning and performance problems. In 1973, the Permanent Conference of Länder Ministers of Education also published a recommendation on "Counsel- ling in Schools and Universities", de- tailing the goals, tasks, organiza- tion and staff capacity of academic counselling services. 68In several recommendations, the Science Council stressed that study applicants and students must be informed and advised exhaustively on all those issues concerning the planning of their studies, including career opportunities. The recommendations of the West German Rector's Conference on "Acade- mic counselling" C1976) and "Improving co-operation between academic counsel- ling and vocational guidance experts in schools and universities" (1977) are in the same vein. This discussion was taken into consideration when the Framework Act for Higher Education (Hochschulrahmen- gesetz) was drawn up. The pertinent provision governing academic counsel- ling, namely Section 14, reads as follows: "(1) The institution of higher education shall inform students and applicants on the opportunities and conditions of study and on the content, structure and requirements of study courses; it shall assist students during their studies by providing subject-oriented advice. In providing such guidance, the institution shall co-operate in particular with both the authorities responsible for vocational guidance and those responsible for state examinations. (2) The Länder shall see to the publication of the current study and examination regulations". Eleven Länder higher education- laws were passed in accordance with the Framework Act for Higher Education and these laws, enacted to implement Section 14 of the said Act, governed, until 1980, both the goals and-the structure of academic counselling. While some of these laws were similar to Section 14 in that they were broadly drafted, others were much more detailed. A remarkable expansion of aca- demic counselling also followed in the wake of the debate concerning the ne- cessity of such services. For example, in 1968, academic counselling services existed at only 29 institutions of higher education. Of these, most dealt with psychotherapeutic problems, while only 7 provided general academic coun- selling. In 1981, on the other hand, approximately 110 general and psycho- therapeutic counselling services existed at the 220 German institutions of higher education. Since some aca- demic counselling services are compe- tent not only to advise one institu- tion of higher education but also to cater to an entire region in which several such institutions are located, today, virtually every second institu- tion of higher education has its own central academic counselling service. The 110 academic counselling services currently employ approximately 220 full-time counselling experts. In 1968, the number was probably between 10 and 15 full-time counsellors. 2. Advantageous effect of the 10 pilot . schemes on academic counselling The ten academic counselling pilot schemes promoted by the Federal and Länder governments within the framework of the Bund-Länder Commis- sion for Educational Planning and Research Promotion ÍBFK) have contri- buted decisively to the favourable de- velopment of academic counselling. From 1973 up to 1981, the Federal and Länder governments have each spent no less than DM IS million. The BLK evaluated the interim and final reports concerning the 10 pilot schemes and submitted a corres- ponding report in March 1981. The chief results and recommendations of the 73-page report can be summarized as follows: 2.1. Goals of the pilot schemes The chief goal of the pilot schemes was that of improving the prerequisites both for students' individual decisions and their personal study successes, thereby also helping to increase efficiency in higher edu- cation. Accordingly, pilot projects focussed on developing and testing 69extensive counselling possibilities and appropriate forms of organization for academic counselling. As a follow-up measure to the recommendation issued by the Conference of Länder Ministers of Education in 1973 on "Counselling in Schools and Universities", decision- making aids were formulated for the following sectors in particular: - Planning the content of counselling services - Staff capacity at counselling services - Qualifications as well as further edu- cation and extension courses for academic counsellors - Co-operation of academic counselling experts with vocational, and educa- tional experts in schools - Academic counselling and study- specific problems of a personal nature. 2.2. Chief results and recommendations The pilot schemes have demon- strated that two central aspects of academic counselling can be combined: First, academic counselling constitutes one aspect of "help in coping with life's problems". This means that the successful conclusion of studies is not merely measured by such mechanical means as information on enrolment con- ditions, examination and study regula- tions or regulations governing the awarding of grants. Second, and perhaps even more importantly, the personal problems, worries and needs of those seeking advice should be discussed by students and their counsellors and that effective solutions should be found. In addition, academic counselling constitutes a sound educational invest- ment which helps to ensure that optimal use is made of the range of teaching programmes in higher education. Timely and selective academic counselling can prevent the occurrence of study- related problems, particularly changes to other disciplines and study drop- out, and also shorten - or even elimi- nate entirely - excessively long periods of study. As the scientific evaluation studies carried out in connection with the Saarbrücken pilot scheme have shown, academic counselling can pro- duce favourable effects with regard to improving work planning, .students' attitudes towards their respective branch of study, social communication on the part of students and reducing the anxiety experienced by students on their initial contact with both higher education institutions and teachers. 2.3. Academic counselling goals In accordance with the provisions set out in the previously mentioned Framework Act, the goals for general academic counselling and study-oriented counselling - which is provided by professors within the framework of their official duties - have been out- lined as follows: - General academic counselling chiefly concerns study opportunities, study contents, final qualifications, en- rolment conditions at higher educa- tional institutions and advanced study programmes. Above and beyond this, psychological counselling is to be provided or obtained if personal problems and crises occur during studies. In particular, academic counsel- ling comprises counselling relating to the special requirements of study courses, the choice of, and participa- tion in, teaching events, issues in connection with changes to other dis- ciplines, and preparation for examina- tions and examination requirements. 2.4. The success of the establishment of central counselling services The establishment of central academic counselling services - organized either as a central institu- tion or as part of the general adminis- tration - has proved to be a successful form for organizing this particular field of counselling. It has been successfully developed and tested in six pilot schemes. 70The report also recommends the establishment of joint academic coun- selling services for the higher educa- tion institutions in any one region (regionalization of counselling services3. 2.5. Provision of at least one acade- mic counsellor per 33000 students The report recommended one aca- demic counsellor for every 3,000 to 4,000 students as the basic counsel- ling staff capacity. It is. also re- commended that the student-counsellor ratio be improved by 1985, to one coun- sellor for every 2,000 to 3,000 stu- dents. At present the Federal Ministry for Education and Science estimates that there is only one counsellor available to advise approximately 4,500 - 5,000 students. 2.6. Baste qualifications for academic counsellor : university degree Academic counsellors must have completed university training. This is the basic qualification for ful- filling their office. In addition, academic counsellors should have pro- fessional experience - if possible, gained outside the higher education sector. Academic counsellors' qualifica- tions are to be improved by further education courses. Supraregional co- ordination of such further education programmes - which should also be planned in co-operation with other counselling-bodies - is recommended. 2. 7. Co-operation between academic counselling3 vocational and, educational guidance services In deviation from other European models (for example, the academic coun- selling system established in the United Kingdom], several counselling services with considerable structural differences are qualified in the Federal Republic of Germany to advise pupils and students. For example: - counselling pupils on school educa- tion courses [counselling in schools) is a task for the Lander and schools in secondary education, stage II; - the Lander and higher education in- stitutions are qualified to provide advice in connection with the choice of studies and study-related issues (academic counselling); - the Federal Institute for Employment is responsible for vocational gui- dance and for finding suitable em- ployment for higher education gra- duates. Academic counselling and voca- tional guidance services are obliged to co-operate according to Section 32 of the Law on the Promotion of Labour, Section 14 of the Framework Act for Higher Education as well as under the relevant provisions of the 11 separate Länder acts governing higher education. As the evaluation report expressly points out, this co-operation is be- coming more and more important in view of the development in the employment system and the growing need for infor- mation and counselling on the part of pupils and students. It is a welcome fact that, since 1973, more than 25 institutions of higher education have established the conditions of co- operation between academic counselling and vocational guidance services by means of co-operation agreements con- cluded with the Federal Institute for Employment. As a result, co-operation has been considerably improved. Co-operation between educational, vocational and academic counselling services is also gaining in importance with respect to the study and voca- tional orientation of pupils. For this reason, the report recommends that the counselling bodies concerned, co- operate as closely as possible, and that such co-operation should commence immediately at the upper secondary level. 713. Summary and prospects The evaluation report shows that admirable development work has been accomplished in most of the Länder of the Federal Republic of Germany since the pilot projects were launched in 1973. On the other hand, the report states clearly that the expansion of academic counselling has still not yet been completed - particularly when compared with the excellent academic counselling services and tutorial systems available in the Anglo-Saxon countries. Indeed, the results of the pilot schemes and the increased demand for academic counselling programmes must be further developed, continuously and step by step. This is also in ac- cordance with the draft updating of the 1973 General Plan for Education, which is currently being prepared by the Bund-Länder Commission for Educa- tional Planning and Research Promotion. The Federal Ministry for Educa- tion and Science also intends to con- tinue its promotion of academic coun- selling within the limits of the funds available. Important results are ex- pected from new pilot and research pro- jects to be carried out in the follow- ing areas in close co-operation with the Länder: - orientation aids to ease the transfer from school to higher education; - development and testing of special programmes for first-year students; - counselling and aids for study drop- outs, students changing to other disciplines and excessively long- term students; - preparation of German students for periods of study abroad. MODELLVERSUCH HOCHSCHULPÄDAGOGISCHE AUSBILDUNG AN DER RUHR-UNIVERSITÄT BOCHUM [Pilot-project on staff development at the Ruhr-Universität Bochum, FRG] Barbara BECKER Ruhr-Universität Bochum, FRG The unit for staff development at the Ruhr-Universität Bochum, the "Mode l Voersuch Hoohschulpädagog-isohe Ausbildung" is a project limited in duration to four years (from July 19-78 to December 1982]. This project is based on the efforts of the two leaders. Prof. Günther Ewald and Prof. Udo L. Figge, who, in their positions as rector and prorector for teaching in 1974, tried to draw the attention of other univer- sity teachers to the improvement of university teaching. In these years, there was an increasing number of stu- dents and teachers as well as the beginning of activities concerning reforms of courses of studies, curri- cula, etc., which helped create the necessary cultural and political back- ground for the gathering of support in the reforming of teaching methods at the university. The initiatives of Prof. Figge and Prof. Ewald generated interest among colleagues and external experts who offered their knowledge and assist- ance. Gradually, there developed a greater awareness of these ideas about teacher training in Higher Education. Since 1974, several courses and work- shops regarding staff development have been offered; and, in 1978, these ac- tivities became a project financed by the Ministeries of Education and Research. Now, the "Modellversuch Hochschulpädagog-ische Ausbildung" co-operates with five universities in North-Rhine-Westfalia (Bielefeld, Dortmund, Duisburg, Essen,, Aachen) to facilitate the implementation of con- cepts about staff development in Higher Education. 72Our programme is conceived around the idea that every process in a seminar or lecture is simply commu- nication and that most painful and embarrassing situations in classrooms are due to a failure in communication. •Therefore, we intend suggesting new ways of communicating; for example, by learning something about self- assessment and introspection, by gain- ing feedback from other participants of the workshops, by perceiving con- flicts in the teacher's role, by im- proving alternate interaction forms through simulation and role-playing, and by becoming acquainted with va- riable teaching methods, etc. Our primary aim is to change the traditional attitudes of teachers by first helping them become aware of problems concerning their own inter- action at the university and then sup- porting innovations and reforms in university teaching which will enhance the willingness of teachers to alter their usual teaching behaviour. We do not offer one tactic as the optimal method to become a good teacher; but, instead, we emphasize the individual with his personal ade- quate teaching behaviour. Our self-perception also excludes an authoritative style of improving university teaching. There are always difficulties in accentuating the im- portance of teaching versus the tra- ditional priority of research, and we strive for voluntary participation in our courses. Only in this way, we think, will teaching and learning be more ef- fective as well as more exciting. Activities of our unit We offer introductory courses and supplemental workshops which are open to all members of the university with teaching tasks. For systematizing these courses we established the pos- sibility of getting a certification after having passed the following ele- ments of our programme: 1. A three-day residential workshop about the use of media in the class- room, group-methods to facilitate • interaction between students and teachers, self-perception and reac- tion of others, problems of tradi- tional classroom formats such as lectures, etc., simulation of teaching behaviour and alternatives to teaching. Usually this course starts at the beginning of the se- mester, and course members there- after constitute a one-semester working group. 2. The one-semester working group ses- sions once a week to further co- operation among colleagues and to support each other in individual efforts to improve teaching quality. 3. Two classroom observations for each participant with feedback about such areas as the presentation of teach- ing aims and behaviour in the com- munication with students. Such feed- back is provided both by colleagues and by videographic analysis. 4. Attendance of at least two one-day • seminars. Our unit offers many se- minars on various topics, and parti- cipants are free to choose to attend any of them. 5. A three-day constructive workshop involving simulation of examination behaviour, feedback through percep- tion of verbal and nonverbal reac- tions and feedback to students con- cerning their advances or failures. In addition, we manage different working groups with specific topics as inner-departmental problems, indi- vidual needs of some participants and professional interests of different schools. Another aspect of our activities relates to consultation with indivi- duals who ask for advice on different problems concerning their teaching behaviour. As it is rather difficult to practice different methods of teaching 73in the real every-day situation at the university, we also support different kinds of projects whose aims are the improvement of didactic qualities and the consideration of practice. Accord- ingly, our unit has assisted projects in the sub-departments of human me- dicine, social science, engineering and education by training the partici- pating tutors, visiting their seminars and offering counsel to the university teachers. We place great value on summa- tive and process-oriented evaluation in order to both justify and measure the success of our programme. Conse- quently, we use a variety of evalua- tive instruments such as questionnaires, interviews, profile-analysis of per- sonal behaviour, classroom observa- tions and feedback methods adapted from group dynamic oriented training. We also offer literature, jour- nals and other information about staff development and teacher training to all interested persons. Structure of the unit The cost of the project is equally borne by the state and federal govern- ments. After having started with only two full-time and one half-time jobs and one part-time secretary, we have now advanced to eight employees, two student assistants and two secretaries. Their duties include the organization of courses and workshops, the develop- ment and realization of the programme evaluation of the courses, elaboration of a curriculum, analysis of literature and administrative tasks. In addition to this staff, there is also an advisory committee of repre- sentatives from the co-operating uni- versities. This committee makes deci- sions concerning theoretical premises and basic lines of operation referring to the course programme. In the end of 1982, this committee and the fellows of the project will have to give an account of their work, the effective- ness of their teacher training and the extent of the interest generated among university members. As mentioned, the unit has li- mited duration, and we do not know as yet whether the programme will be permanently financed and thus insti- tutionalized. Aims and perspectives for the future The commission of our unit is the conceptualization of a curriculum for staff development and its imple- mentation in different universities. We are working for the realization of these aims by innovating and testing different methods for improving teach- ing in higher education. We are attempting to become an institute within the university of Bochum and, from that position, to emphasize the importance of teaching as one of the main obligations of the academic staff. Effective teaching has to be reorganized and rewarded in the college's promotion schemes to unsettle the priority of research. There is more work to do before we reach these aims, and we are rely- ing on the interest and the enthusiasm of our colleagues as well as on inter- national co-operation and the exchange of experiences with comparable units in order to continue our progress. 74CEPES ACTIVITIES 1. After four years of enßrgetic and successful work for CEPES and many years of service with Unesco, Mr. A u d u n 0fjord, director of CEPES since 1978, has left the Organization and has retired to Norway, his home country. He has been replaced temporarily by Mr. J-c- Pauvert, who will leave in August. The new director, nominated by the Di r e c t o r~ G e n e r a- 1- °'f Unesco, is Mr. Franz Eberhard, former Secretary-General of the Austrian Conference of University Rectors, who will take office in August this year. 2. The Director a.i. of C É P E S , Mr. J.C. Pauvert, has represented the Centre at the following meetings that took recently place in Romania: - Round table on the role °^ youth in the eighties (Costinesti), 31.5. - 5.6.1982; - High level meeting of officials responsible for industrial manpower training in developing countries [Bucharest], 31.5. - 4.6.1982; - Meeting of experts fr o m the Balkan Countries on multilateral co-operation in the domain of energy and primary resources (Bucharest) 7.6. - iZ- 6 3. The fourth meeting of CEP E S liaison officers took place at the Centre from the 22nd to the 24th of J u n e 1 9 8 2. Twenty seven liaison officers came from twenty four countries and discussed the following points: a) liaison activities o^ CEPES with member states in the field of higher education; b) review and evaluation o f t n e s uPP° r t given by the liaison officers to the activities of C É P E S ; c) information concerning t n e C E P E S programme for the period 1982-1983; d) suggestions for the improvement of the contribution of the liaison officers to the executi°n °^ ̂ he CEPES programme and to the reinforce- ment of contacts with member states; e) contribution of memt3er states to the execution of the Centre's programme. 754. CEPES has recently received visits from: - Dr. Ivan Nikolov and Miss Lubka Botcheva of the Institute of research on higher education, Sofia, Bulgaria; - Prof. Dr. Horst Möhle, of Karl-Marx University, Leipzig,. GDR. 5. We would like to signal two new publications from CEPES: a) Distance education for the updating of knowledge at postgraduate level. 115 p. These are the proceedings of the conference organized by CEPES in December 1980 in Madrid; the brochure contains all the contributions provided by the participants, the documents established by CEPES for the purpose of the meeting and an extensive bibliography. 6) Higher education in the United States. 100 p. This is the- third monograph in our series on national systems of higher education. Presently under preparation are manuscripts from the GDR, Norway and Bulgaria. 76CALENDAR OF EVENTS Calendar of conferences an<± meetings relevant to higher education to be organized by Unesco and other international and national organizations and institutions between August and December 1982, and in 1983 AUGUST 1982 1 - 4 "Build-ing bridges: the road to renewal for the 1980's". The 17th Annual International Conference of the Society for College and University- Planning For further information contact: Dr. William Barba Graduate School SUNY, Buffalo, 549 Capen Hill Buffalo, New York 14260 Buffalo, IM.Y. CUSA) 21 - 27 17th World Congress of Philosophy Theme: "Philosophy- and Culture" For further information contact: Secretariat of 17th World Congress of Philosophy, Université de Montreal C.P. 6128, Succursale s, Montreal, O.Q. H3C 3J7 Canada Montreal (Canada) 30 August- 4 September International Meeting of University Administrators3 •jointly organized by the Conference Registrars and Secretaries, and'the Conference of University Administrators, UK For further information contact: Mrs. Anne Lonsdale, Assistant Registrar The Orientatl Institute The University of Oxford Pusey Lane, Oxford 0X1 2LE United Kingdom Hong-Kong 77SEPTEMBER 1962 5 - 9 Tenth International Round Table for the Lausanne Advancement of Counselling (Switzerland) For further information contact : Dr. Derek Hope Secretary IRTAC Brunei University, Uxbridge LJB8 3PH United Kingdom 6 - 8 Sixth General Conference of CERI-OECD Paris (Programme on Institutional Management (France) in Higher Education (IMHE): "Challenges for Institutional Management" For further information contact: Dr. Paul M. LeVasseur CERI-OECD 2, rue André Pascal 75775 Paris, CEDEX 16 France 6-10 Seminar on Methodological Problems for Grenoble Training Specialists in Energy Planning in (France) Europe For further information contact: T. Beresovski SC/TER Unesco 7, Place de Fontenoy 75007, Paris, France 6-10 7th Conference of the Association for Teacher Birmingham Education in Europe: "Teacher Education (United Kingdom) within the Framework of the European Community" For further information contact: Gerald Asbury Faculty of Education City of Birmingham Polytechnic Westbourne Road Edgbaston Birmingham B15 3TN United Kingdom 78SEPTEMBER 1982 19-21 Seminar on "Higher Education and Budapest Scientific-technical and Socio- (Hungary) economical Development." For information contact: Dr. Mihaly Bihari Ministère de la Culture et de l'Education Département des Relations internationales Budapest V. Szalay utca 10-14 Hongrie OCTOBER 1982 4 - 8 Meeting of Experts on Priorities in the Paris Exchange of Ideas and Information on the (France) Teaching of Science and Technology For further information contact: E. Jacobsen ED/STE Unesco 7, Place de Fontenoy 75007, Paris, France 5 - 8 Meeting of Experts in Terminology Geneva „ ,, . _ .. . , (Switzerland) For further information contact: CH. Fitouri IBE Geneva, Switzerland 19-20 Conference on post-secondary education Toronto . ,. *.. j. j. (Canada) For further information contact: Council of Ministers of Education, Canada 252 Bloor West Suite 5-200 Toronto, Canada M5S 1V5 23 — 30 Annual Meeting of the Evaluation Research <• Baltimore Society (ERS) Maryland For further information contact: T.C. Brock 1945 North High Street, Columbus Ohio 43210, USA 79NOVEMBER 1982 2 - 4 Tenth Advisory Committee of CEPES Bucharest (Romania) 5 - 6 Annual Congress of SSRE Lausanne M , , r- r- i. C Switzerland) Mme Jocelyne Francfort Congrès SSRE Av. Vinet 19 1004' Lausanne Tel. 021/37.98.49 15-19 International Consultation on the Articu- Paris lation of General Teaching and Technical (France) Teaching For further information contact: A. Fofana ED/SCM Unesco 7, Place de Fontenoy 75007, Paris, France 18-19 CRE Conference on "The Role of Research Hamburg in University Life" (FRG) For further information contact: Dr. Andris Barbián CRE, 10, rue du Conseil Général 1205 Geneva, Switzerland 19-22 Sixth Annual Conference and General Ottawa Assembly of the CRIAW (Canadian Research (Canada) Institute for the Advancement of If omen ). Theme: "Sexism in research and its policy implications" For further information contact: Jill Vickers c/o ICRAF C.P. 236, Succursale B, Ottawa, Ont. K1P 6C4, Canada 23 - 27 Third World Congress of International Washington D.C. Association of Educators for World Peace: (USA) "Education for Survival" For further information contact: Dr. John Petry Memphis State University Memphis, Tenn. 38152, USA 80NOVEMBER 1982 29 November 7 December Joint ILO/Unesco Committee of Experts on the Application of the Recommendation concevning the Status of Teachers For further information contact: F.B. Nallétamby ED/HEP Unesco, 7, Place de Fontenoy 75007, Paris, France Geneva (Switzerland) Regional Seminar in Latin America and the Caribbean on the role of teachers of educational science, the improvement of teacher training at all levels, and improve- ment of the education system as a whole For further information contact: I. Monal ED/HEP Unesco 7,. Place de Fontenoy 75007, Paris, France Caracas (Venezuela) International Meeting of Experts on the Implementation of Lifelong Education Principles in Member States For further information contact: R. Dave UIE Hamburg, FRG Hamburg (FRG) DECEMBER 1982 7 - 1 0 Meeting of those responsible for institu- tions engaged in research on higher education, organized by CEPES For further information contact: The Director CEPES 39, Stirbei Vodà Bucharest, Romania Salamanca (Spain) 81DECEMBER 1962 7 - 1 4 Intergovernmental Conference on Education for International Understanding, Co-operation and Peace and Education relating to Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, with a view to Developing a Climate of Opinion Favourable to the strengthening of Security and Disarmament For further information contact: R.K. Kim ED/SPO Unesco 7, Place de Fontenoy 75007, Paris, France Paris (France) 1 9 8 3 28 January- Expolangues: First International Week of Paris 1 February Languages and Cultures (France) For further information contact: Brigitte Motóla Expo langues 7, rue Copernic 75782 Paris, Cedex 16 telex: 620990 21 - 25 February 3rd World Conference on Cooperative Melbourne Education (Australia) For further information contact: The Chairman World Conference on Cooperative Education PO Box 218 Hawthorn Victoria Australia 3122 5 - 9 September Higher Education by the year 2000 - which Frankfurt contributions can our institutions of (FRG) higher learning make to cope with major societal problems? 1. IV. International Congress organized by the European Association of Research and Development of Higher Education (EARDHE) 8219 8 3 2. Format of the conference The main goals of this conference are: - To help conceptualize and analyse the relevant problems in higher education; - To analyse, develop and discuss possible strategies and courses of action in teaching, learning and research; - To facilitate attitude change, create interest and stimulate thinking and action on these issues. If you are interested in the conference and in receiving these pre-conference materials, please write to: EARDHE IV. International Congress Organizing Committee c/o Prof. Dr. LI.P. Ritter Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Institut für Markt und Plan Fachbereich 2 Postfach 11 19 32 6000 Frankfurt/Main 11 Federal Republic of Germany 63BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES TO PUBLICATIONS O N HIGHER EDUCATION BOOK REVIEWS KOSZTY KSZTALCENIA W SZKOLACH WYZSZYCH (Costs of Education at Higher Schools) by Sabina AndrzejaK PWN, IPNPTiSzW Warszawa 1982, 238 p. 28 tab. bibliography This book is the doctoral thesis of Sabina AndrzejaK upon the defence of which she obtained a degree of Doctor of Economic Sciences in the University of Warsaw. She works at the Main Statistical Office and co- operates with the Institute of Science Policy, Technological Progress and Higher Education. Costs of'education are the least discussed issues in the whole range of problems concerning economics of education. This is evident in review- ing Polish and world bibliographies on this subject. Research on the cost of educa- tion is difficult. This type of re- search, which involves gathering •satisfactory, comparable and reliable statistical information over long intervals and adequate classifica- tion of costs, is very time-consum- ing both at the stage of data gathering and in processing the data. Still, it seems evident that costs of education should be given greater attention in the future. The rapid expansion of higher education in the years 1960-1970 and the slower yet constant growth of the number of students along with the slowing down of the rate of the economic growth in several countries will oblige go- vernments and other institutions fi- nancincing education to analyse pre- cisely the cost of development of all levels of education and seek methods to optimize their use. This book presents the results of empirical research on costs of edu- cation in the years 1966-1974. This research has embraced all types of in- stitutions of higher education in Poland, i.e. universities, technical universities, higher engineering schools, academies of agriculture, aca- demies of economics, teachers training higher schools, medical academies, higher marine schools, academies of physical education, art academies and academies of theology. The author has fixed her attention on 9 Polish uni- versities. The comparison of costs of educa- tion of all schools of one type Cuni- versities in this instance) is even more rare than studies on costs of edu- cation in different types of institu- tions. It is also more interesting as it shows what elements influence differences in the level of costs of education. This aspect of research was the goal of this book along with the detsrmination of the level, structure and dynamics of costs of education in institutions of higher education in Poland in the years 1966-1974. From the point of view of the usefulness of this book for foreign specialists, it is worthwhile to mention some problems. In research on 84costs of higher education, a crucial part is played by a method of dividing the total expenditures. It is impos- sible for a researcher to introduce any changes because of the actual sys- tem of recording costs of education. In this book, the costs are classified not only by types of insti- tutions but also by forms of studies (full-time, evening and extra-mural), types of costs (individual, material and other) and functions (direct, accompanying and amortization. The accompanying costs include financial aid for students, maintenance of student hostels and canteens; the in- direct costs comprise expenditures for research and education of research staff). For educational economists the most important chapters are I - III. The third chapter "Methodological Assumptions of Research" gives basic terminology and methods of calculating such categories as an average number of students, method of calculating costs of educating a graduate, etc. The chapter IV is also interest- ing from the methodological point of view. It analyses basic factors affect- ing the level of costs of education on the example of 9 Polish universi- ties. It is noteworthy that the author is well aware of the fact that deter- mination of the costs of educating a graduate does not take into account the quality of this education, e.g. a graduate's readiness to engage in continuous intellectual development and upgrading their qualifications and the ability to analyse and asso- ciate facts, create new concepts and find new solutions. It may be asked what purpose is served by such deep analysis of the costs of higher education if, because of the lack of determination of the qualitative elements of an education, this study cannot (and should not) serve as a comprehensive means of evaluation of the work of institutions of higher education. Fortunately, how- ever, the possibilities of the prac- tical use of such an analysis are amply demonstrated in the Introduction and throughout the whole book. The most important seems its use in making decisions concerning long-range deve- lopment of education and the optimi- zation of the use of funds for it's development. The appendix contains 28 tables with rich data presenting the results of the research. These data can serve also as a base for international com- parison as most tables give structural relations between different types of categories. The book also contains a vast bibliography of Polish publications on costs of education and a list of normative acts and other source mate- rials which present the legal founda- tions of the system of financing higher education in Poland. Magdalena Banaszkiewicz Hanna Jablonska-Skinder TRAITE DES SCIENCES PEDAGOGIQUES (Treatise of Pedagogics) Maurice Debesse, Gaston Mialaret, eds. PUF, Paris, 1969-1978, 8 volumes A long and well-written essay would have been necessary to review eight volumes dealing exclusively and extensively with aspects of pedagogy, but space forbids this. The first, introductory volume was published back in 1969 and the eighth, and last volume came out in 1978, thus illustrating that a scholarly work of such scope cannot and should not be produced in compressed time-limits. For the French- speaking countries, this is one of the most important publications con- cerning pedagogics, and taken indivi- dually each volume could very well 85function as a basic text-book or reader, the style being generally not too esotheric. The first volume intro- duces the reader to the complex field of pedagogics and, more generally, to the science of education, by stressing notably its philosophical and methodo- logical aspects. Every chapter is written by a specific author which allows the reader to confront, within the limits of the undertaking, indi- vidual views and opinions. After this general thematical introduction, the second volume deals in over 500 pages, with the history of pedagogy and edu- cation, starting with masters of anti- quity like. Platon, and ending with the more recent achievements of modern education including its sometimes ephemeral fashions. Much space is gratefully devoted to the timeless innovators of pedagogical thoughts such as Feltre, Erasmus, Bodin, Vives, Rabelais, Montaigne and, of course, Rousseau. Each era, such as the re- naissance or contemporary thought, is dealt with by a separate author who also provides a short bibliography for further reading. A cronological, name and geographical index conclude this volume. The third volume is devoted to comparative education to provide better geographical coverage and to give more depth to what has been said in the preceding volumes. Although the scope ought to be world-wide, Europe remains at the centre of analysis with the exception of China. The comparative process is based on a relatively tho- rough analysis of the major educational elements in France, which in itself is already quite an achievement given the complex historical origins of many modern, institutionalized educational specializations from primary school to higher education. These analytic elements are then compared to major European systems, the French, English and German speaking ones, as well as to the USSR and, as said above, to China. A major omission is the conspi- cuous absence of educational systems not belonging to the modern industrial- ized world; an analysis of the role and impact of traditional religion- bound systems in Africa and Asia would have contributed a significant element of human genius and adaptation, show- ing that elsewhere too great thinkers and long-lasting educational efforts have found their way into history. Volume four deals with basic knowledge on the different stages of child-development - an occasion to show how deeply psychological data have influenced or even completely changed traditional pedagogy. A case in point is René Zazzo's chapter on the evolution of children and adoles- cents, where, among other aspects, he describes critically the intensive and escalating use of psychometric tests, based on the belief that scientifically developed tests would allow a more objective approach to evaluate children measuring performance in schools. Although being himself a psychologist of considerable repute, he refutes the over-use of such test, specially when used to discharge the responsibility of teachers, who should feel themselves in the forefront of what is happening in the classroom and who, according to Zazzo, should apply a more conscious pedagogy. However, he admits the difficulty to transform theory into practice, felt especially in the context of Piaget's thinking. Zazzo's very thoughtful article is followed by an equally instructive, complementary chapter on the influence of psychology on pedagogical theories, written by Philippe Malrieu. Other chapters examine in detail the various, but always complex educational situa- tions among young children, and a major chapter, by Maurice Reuchlin, takes up again the pros and cons of evaluation. Volume five is virtually a follow-up of the forth one, but more devoted to particular cases of psycho- logical pedagogy, notably the family environment. It also provides rich information on well-established or new methods and techniques, including a critical evaluation of audio-visual technologies. Certain disciplines taught at school are carefully reviewed 86as well as all psycho-pedagogical ac- tivities attached to the schooling pro- cess, such as counselling centres, etc. These themes are further deve- lopped in the sixth volume entitled the "social aspects of education", where the first chapter deals with to- pics such as the evolution of social behaviour among children and adoles- cents, group psychology, psychology of teachers, etc. The second part examines the general social aspects of educa- tion, sociology of the school and of family-education, and school-demogra- phy; with the last chapters contain- ing a considerable amount of data per- taining to demographic and economic factors of the school-system. One might only regret that the very impres- sive mass of information refers ex- clusively to France. The financial and economic aspects are then dealt with by Jean-Claude Eicher, and Le Than Khôi introduces the subtleties of educational planning. Another useful chapter is con- tributed by A. Raffestin who points out the necessity to reunite economic and educational needs by introducing innovative but adapted professional qualifications and hence access to employment. Finally, the seventh volume is a full-scale inquiry into the composite role of the teaching profession, whose pivotal position has been denoted in preceding volumes, but which is re- conceptualized here. If language creates knowledge, then the teacher can be considered as being at the fore- front of the transmission of accumu- lated and socially accepted knowledge. However today's conditions have changed dramatically and Maurice Debesse, one of the principal editors of this series, reexamines the function and role of teachers and the subsequent articles focus separately on the teachers' motivation, his social sta- tus, his role as pedagogue and his evaluation (what is a "good" teacher?). The second part of this volume 7 deals with the training of teachers, in- cluding those for higher education. Gratefully, one also finds chapters comparing teacher-training with other countries in Europe, in the USA, or in the Third World; further, the dif- ferent approaches to teacher-training are dealt with [integrated, unified or diversified) and examined. The final chapter is quite welcome and evaluates what the sciences of edu- cation could concretely contribute to teacher-training, by mapping out fields of future research and inter- vention but also by describing the still insufficient level of research» especially in France. The final eighth volume concludes this monumental collection on pedago- gy by looking into the still marginal fields of permanent education. Inter- esting data are supplied on the moti- vation and learning behaviour of the adult-student while another chapter deals with the possibilities and limits of audio-visual media for adult education, its limited conclu- sions being based on a specific case- study. The last chapters explore the multiple facets of socio-cultural educative groups that operate outside the established educational system, where education and leisure are reunited under still uncertain but promising beginnings. The role and driving force of local associations and clubs is investigated. This almost encyclopedic collec- tion of numerous scholarly articles on almost any imaginable pedagogical topic is definitely a milestone in the field and will boost the prestige of the sciences of education in the French-speaking countries where hitherto they only played a minor role. The impressive eight volumes should not deter the potential reader, for this is a fine and varied collection of most of the presently available knowledge, written down by well-known experts, providing a wealth of data and information, and backed-up by a substantial apparatus of numerous bibliographies, indexes etc. In addi- tion, the readability of the text, its directness and clarity of thought constitute another sizeable asset to its usefulness as a source of 87reference and information for those concerned with modern problems of edu- cation and pedagogics. W. Vollmann ADMINISTRATIVE LEADERSHIP by Paul L. Dressel Published by Jossey-Bass Publishers San Francisco - Washington - London, 243 p. The problem of the administra- tion of higher education is an old one, since it existed and developed in parallel with university's existence and development. Naturally, in more complex contemporary conditions, the problem of higher education adminis- tration is more complicated and so- phisticated. Fortunately the author has prac- tical experience both as an adminis- trator himself and as a researcher. In his book he considers such subjects as the social role and responsibility of higher education and the obliga- tion of administrators to operate within a value framework with regard to American higher education. Chapter one "The Need tor Administrators" expresses the view that a new type of administrator is required who "can see his or her role within the institution with full awareness of the existence of other institutions"; who has socially va- luable motivation; who realizes the responsibilities of the institution (instruction, research and public service) and who is the sort of leader who can manage an institution, so as to direct the attention of the faculty to the obligation of the institution to serve effectively in those missions. In Chapter two the author em- phasizes the role of morals, ethics and values in higher education and the importance of offering value com- ments in a framework of social res- ponsibility and concern for quality. One of the most difficult is- sues for the university is communica- tion. In Chapter three "Improving Admin- istrative Communication" the author reveals the reasons for ineffective communication at each stage of the communication process, which are, in his opinion, rather distinctive in a university in comparison with business or industry, due to the dif- ferences in orientation of students, faculty members, administrators, and auxiliary personnel. Chapter four'"Conceptions of Decision Making" considers various theoretical and practical approaches to decision making and its relation- ship to administration. The author describes areas of decision making, such as routine de- cisions, monitoring and correcting deficient performance, innovations, personnel policies, institutional mission, role, purpose and scope, and personal decisions. He discovers the dimensions of decision making, in- cluding the awareness or conscious- ness expected when a decision is being made; the importance attached to an issue and a decision regarding it; the process by which the decision is to be made; identification of exactly what is involved in making the decision; the amount of flexibi- lity or rigidity that exists both in directing the nature of the decision and in the decision itself; the iden- tification of whether the decision deals with structural, procedural, or substantive matters; and finally, implementation and evaluation. Further, having discovered the bases of decisions and their effects and patterns of decision making, the author analyses concepts of power, authority and influence. He defines power as the ability to control or determine the formulation, interpre- tation, or application of policy; 88authority - as a recognized power, and influence as an informal power achievable in a variety of ways. Then the author derives from those defini- tions some models of university go- vernance and characterizes adminis- trative .responsibilities. In Chapters 5 through 9, which constitute the main methodological part of the book, the reader will find useful information about admin- istrative tactics in different situa- tions of university life, such as ma- nagement problems, responsibilities and functions, problems of conflicts of interest in internal organization, problems of understanding external influences and balancing public con- trol and institutional integrity. The author discloses university obliga- tions and administrative responsibi- lities from the position of practical application. It would seem interesting and useful for all university decision makers to become acquainted with the author's solutions proposed for some crucial problems and issues such as institutional mission, balance in institutional purposes, balance in educational objectives, productivity and efficiency, power and conflicts, crisis management etc. In chapter ten "Evaluating Ad- ministrative Performance", the author explains the differences between the terms leadership and management. He says that leadership has been charac- terized as knowing where to go, whereas management has been charac- terized as knowing how to get there. On the basis of this definition, the author sets out a number of problems in evaluating administrators in higher education. He discusses a variety of problems including defining adminis- tration and the criteria of success, delineating the power of administra- tors and the ambiguous way adminis- trators communicate. The book views typical organi- zational patterns in higher education administration from a psychological and social psychological perspective and formulates criteria for adminis- trative performance as well as for evaluation of administrators. "Administrative Leadership" describes problems of and solutions for higher education administration in the USA, but it could nevertheless be useful and interesting to those responsible for higher education in numerous countries. A. Prokhorov DIE KRISE DES ABITURS UND EINE ALTERNATIVE (The crisis of school-leaving certi- ficate and an alternative) by Hartmut von Hentig Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart, 1980, 824 p. In the Federal Republic of Germany, those in possession of a matriculation certificate (Abitur) are entitled to ask for admission to higher education, and only 25% of German nationals have the Abitur. This relatively selective process is based on the assumption that only the Abitur can testify to the maturity of the future student. Von Hentig strongly criticizes these traditional admis- sion procedures arguing that they definitely exclude large portions of the population wishing to obtain a higher education degree. He further states and persuasively supports the premise that secondary schooling is largely insufficient, lacking a thorough preparation for the study of scientific matter at the university. The dysfunctional aspects of the Abitur induce the author to develop a comprehensive approach linking secondary and higher education and rethinking the whole process in an unorthodox, refreshing but necessarily subjective manner. His principal pro- posal is a pedagogical alternative which would abolish progressively the hitherto sharp borderline between 89secondary and higher education and replace it by an organic four-year term of study (Oberstufen-Kolleg) which would include the two last years of secondary and the first two years of higher education. Readers will learn about the author's success in apply- ing his theory in Bielefeld and his attempt to generalise this experience and seek recognition by educational authorities. The documents illustrat- ing the most significant and sometimes epic episodes when arguing with fe- deral and regional administration, are in themselves a telling example of the persistent mistrust met by any educational innovation at the decision- making level. Beyond such down-to- earth facts, the author sets out to describe in detail the Bielefeld ex- periment during all phases of the four year study programme with emphasis on evaluation of acquired knowledge. In fact, the various types of evaluation form the centre piece of argumenta- tion and indicate a fundamental incom- patibility with traditional ways of assessing knowledge. The hitherto tra- ditional final exam which is limited in time is replaced by practically a four-year period of evaluation. This is certainly a very interesting ap- proach but its feasibility beyond Bielefeld is contested by other simi- lar experiences where students found themselves in a permanent straight- jacket of continuous control and exam, producing psychological stress and tension hardly beneficial for the successful pursuit of studies. The Bielefeld experience thus shows an uneven success and drop-out rate from one year to another. Is this an indi- cation to revise procedures? The author attributes, too hastily per- haps, such dysharmonies to external factors but seems to be ready to ac- cept further modifications and re- modelling. Nevertheless he still main- tains the necessity of a final, though less rigid, exam. Much place is also devoted to par- ticular aspects of courses embedded in the general evaluating process, especially in its concluding phases. The whole curriculum has been thoroughly and critically reviewed and reconstructed and examples pro- vided indicate assurlngly that a more science-minded but basically didactic curriculum is the pre-condition of any reform, replacing indifference, and obscure fragmentation of bits of knowledge fed to ill-prepared students. Hentig's way of tackling the vast, and differentiated field of transition from secondary to higher learning remains, in its guiding features, largely allegoric when re- ferences are drawn systematically to traditional systems of education. One must, however, praise the exception- ableness of the author's approach. His unequivocally unconventional thought captivates the reader and facilitates the comprehension of many complex subjects by using a vigorous and frank style. This book definitely deserves a large discussion beyond established specialists' circles. W. Vollmann MAKING HIGHER EDUCATION ACCESSIBLE TO YOUNG WORKERS AND PEASANTS: THE SOVIET HISTORICAL EXPERIENCE by V. Onushkin, V. Zubkov Unesco, Literacy, Adult Education and Rural Development Division, 1982, 42 p. The problems of democratization of higher education and of broadening access to higher education for people involved in the productive process are very significant in the contempo- rary world. Therefore, the book, published by Unesco, which illustrates the Soviet experience in solving this problem, is well-timed. Authors study, from an histori- cal perspective, different ways of achieving democratization of education and preparing an intelligentsia from the ranks of workers and peasants. 90The study examines the main le- gislative enactments and measures which were implemented in order to er- radícate illiteracy and to ensure the quickest growth of literacy and to sup- port the development of higher educa- tion. For researchers in the history of higher education, it would seem to be interesting to Know about the sys- tem of "Workers' faculties", which existed between 1920 and 1940 in the USSR. The explanation of the emergence of these "Workers' faculties" was the perceived necessity to speed up the process of preparing a new Soviet in- telligentsia for the political, econo- mic and cultural building of the country. The authors analyze Soviet Go- vernment measures meant to guarantee juridical and actual access of working people to higher educational institu- tions, which permitted thousands of workers and peasants to rush to univer- sities. However, the most difficult obstacle to "obtaining higher education for the working people was the lack of the proper background for studies at the university. This .obstacle was over- come in the process of the further transformation of higher education. The creation of workers' facul- ties attached to specialized higher schools sufficiently expanded the faculties educational and material ressources by giving them access to the equipment and laboratories of the patron-higher schools. Much methodic work was undertaken simultaneously with the broadening of the workers' faculties network, for example the curricula and syllabi were changed and the necessary volume and content of knowledge were determined for the successful work of persons graduating from workers' faculties inside higher schools of various types. In a special chapter, the authors analyse the present system of prepa- ratory departments of the higher schools in the USSR, which differs radically from the workers' faculties of the twenties. Their task is to prepare workers who have already ob- tained the secondary education neces- sary for entering a higher school. Day, night and correspondence prepa- ratory departments were created in 1969 for a minimum of one hundred students with an eight month educa- tion term. Young workers and peasants entering the department had to pos- sess no less than a full year of practical work. The direction of these departments was assigned to the ma- nagers of industrial enterprises, construction projects, communication enterprises, and state and collective farms and to commanders of military units on the recommendation of the Party, Komsomol and trade-union orga- nizations. Persons who had graduated from the preparatory departments and had passed final examinations were enrolled in the first-year course of higher schools without any entrance examinations. In three tables, the authors 1 present the curricula and the number of persons enrolled in preparatory departments. They show some particular problems of such departments, analyse their structure, management and edu- cational methods adapted to them and reach the conclusion that preparatory departments have naturally entered the higher education system and have be- come a structural part of it. After characterizing other forms of the preparation and selection of school drop-outs for admission to higher school, which are used in the USSR, the authors come to the conclu- sion that the entire system and pre- sent admission rules ensure the pos- sibility of filling universities with gifted and well-trained young people from the ranks of workers, collective farmers, ex-servicemen and school graduates. A. Prokhorov 91PRINENENIE MATEMATICHESKIKH METODOV DLYA OPTIMIZATSII POSLEDOVATEL NOSTI IZUCHENIYA DISTSIPLIN CEmployment of Mathematical Methods for Optimizing Subject Study Sequence) By E. Shurgolsky, Y. Krylov, V. Mironov Published by the Scientific Research Institute for Higher School Problems Moscow, 1982, 40 p. The curriculum embodied in a study plan for acquiring a given spe- ciality is the principal document that lays down the content and organization- al outline of the teaching process, as well as the subject sequence and in- tensity, forms of students' practical training etc. The elaboration of ra- tional study plans meeting most fully the economic requirements and the achieved level of scientific and tech- nological development, is a complex job which involves meticulous endeavour. Very often there is no guarantee that the adopted decision will prove to be optimal. . This publication deals with problems related to the automated ela- boration of higher education study plans. Clearly set forth in it are the basic principles of the method worked out in the USSR. The problem is solved in two stages: - drawing up of a list of subjects that are to be studied and fixing time- limits for learning each subject; - determination of the optimal sequence in which different subject areas should be learned. The authors of the paper des- cribe, on the basis of the experience accumulated in the USSR, the method of solving the second-stage problem by means of mathematical optimization with due account for the logical relation- ships of the different subject areas and observance, to a sufficient extent, of the methodological and didactical requirements involved in the organiza- tion of the teaching process. The basic requirements are clearly formulated and should be de- sirably taken into account when fixing the sequence in which the study ma- terial is to be presented and deter- mining the optimization criteria ne- cessary for solving the task in hand. It is noted, moreover, that, as a rule, there is still no quantitative yardstick which would help us to get a straightforward answer concerning the extent to which the study plan proper is conducive to the fulfilment of education's main objective - to train highly qualified specialists. It is pertinent to recall in this con- nection that the study plan in itself, in spite of its importance, does not predetermine the efficiency of the teaching process. On the basis of the theory of optimization and consecutiveness, the authors present the study plans' quality criteria and describe the mathematical approach to the problem. Moreover, they specify the necessary initial data and their mathematical formalization. On the basis of an analysis of the task in hand, the authors adduce the sequence optimization algorithm for studying different subjects at institutions of higher education, and also instructions for its programming, permitting to find a solution that is within the local optimum range. Given certain conditions, this solution is perfectly acceptable and, from the methodological and didactical points of view, meets, to a definite measure, the established requirements and stu- dy plans. The employment of computing techniques makes for quick assessment of the possible study plan versions and permits to draw proper conclusions concerning their conformity with the fixed requirements. This research paper is an in- teresting example of how the optimiza- tion theory is used to direct the study process through the elaboration of the most rational study plan versions. H. Boutsev 92BOOK NOTES DESIGNING UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION William H. Bergquist, Ronald A. Gould, Elinor Miller Greenberg, eds. Jossey-Bass Publishers San Francisco, 1981, 332 p. This comprehensive and systema- tic guide to programme development and resource management has been de- signed to encourage presidents, deans, department heads;, curriculum special- ists and faculty to take a fresh and broader look at curricula, at a time when curricular diversity has come under attack by many experts and a more back-to-core-knowledge attitude is clearly discernable. The authors contribute basic information to the on-going debate by being careful not to advocate an all-out innovative pro- cess but rather to reinforce clarity of purpose and credibility of existing undergraduate programmes.Six primary dimensions are identified and investi- gated: time, space, resources, orga- nization, procedures and outcomes. By referring to these analytical but also practical categories, alternative ways of curricula design are mapped out and discussed. Although much of the information conveyed refers spe- cifically to American higher educa- tion, the problems and their proposed solutions are of interest to a wider public, given the scope of the present debate on the significance and pers- pectives of general education at the undergraduate level. W.V. Scientific Research Institute for the Problems of Higher Education, Moscow, 1982, 52 p. After World War II and after the creation of the United Nations system, the role of international or- ganizations in the resolution of in- ternational political and socio- economical problems increased to con- siderable extent. Problems of higher education development more often be- come the subject of international dis- cussions and international co- operation. This book reviews the ac- tivities of international intergovern- mental organizations (UN, UNESCO), international regional organizations, and non-governmental organizations in the field of higher education. In annexes I and II, the reader will find -the lists of international organizations dealing with higher education as well as international non-governmental organizations for education having consultative status with Unesco. The authors of this book are the first to collect and analyse the structure and the content of activi- ties of different international orga- nizations in the field of higher education. Researchers and decision- makers who are dealing with interna- tional co-operation in higher educa- tion will find this book very inter- esting and useful. A.P. MEZDUNARODNYE ORGANIZATSII V QBLASTI VYSSHEGO OBRAZOVANIA: TSELÎ, PROGRAMY, RECOMENDACII (International Organizations in the Field of Higher Education: Objectives, Programmes, Recommendations) A.I. Galagan, V.V. Kashtanov, E.V. Scherbakov PART-TIME FACULTY IN AMERICAN HIGHER EDUCATION David W. Leslie, Samuel E. Kellams, G. Manny Gunne, eds. Praeger Publ., New York,n1982, 151 p. In American higher education, 93the search for increased academic flexibility has created a new breed of part-time faculty, and this book is the timely fruit of extensive research conducted to find basic information on how and why the use of part-time faculty developed. The scope of the research included efforts to identify the characteristics of individuals filling such positions, explore the na- ture of their contractual relation- ships with employing institutions, in- vestigate developments in the law per- taining to those relationships, and look into the costs and benefits of such forms of employment. The consi- derable research on these issues is all the more meritorious since prob- lems of definition significantly hampered efforts to come to grips with a category of personnel whose status varies from one college to the other. This is reflected by a case-study re- port which reveals wide differences of employment conditions and personnel attitudes. The concluding chapter is of special interest as it proposes concrete measures toward -the formation of a consistent national policy which pays particular attention to key- issues such as the efficiency, respon- sibility, and quality of part-time faculty. W.V. PROFESSIONAL ETHICS IN UNIVERSITY ADMINISTRATION Ronald H. Stein, PI. Carlota Baca ees. Jossey-Bass Publishers San Francisco, 1981, 100 p. This publication is aimed at all those involved or concerned with uni- versity administration and attempts to give them in-depth information on major ethical problems which arise daily in university life. The editors. Baca and Stein, have succeeded in bringing to- gether a series of instructive articles on topics such as the (university) president as ethical leader, sexual harassment of women students, moral and ethical obligations of colleges and universities to minority students, academic chivalry and professional res- ponsibility. There are also funda- mental statements of the leading American associations of professors and administrators. It is the editors' contention that a general crisis of higher edu- cation, caracterized by enrollment crisis, declining funds and increased public demands of accountability, re- quires administrators to consciously reconsider their ethical and moral values in the light of new, more complex facts of life that impinge on daily administration. In this sense, this book does contribute to the de- bate on educational ethics and clarifies major issues. W.V. DISTANCE LEARNING AND EVALUATION General Editor - A.J. Trott Kogan Page London / Nickols Publishing Company, New York, 1981, 334 p. This book is the result and sum- mary of discussions during the fif- teenth annual conference of AETT (The Association for Educational and Training Technology) held at Robert Gordon's Institute of Technology, Aberdeen, in April 1981. Three main themes are presented in the book as a result of the dis- cussion at the conference. They are: - Distance Learning and Broadcasting - The Role of Evaluation in Educational Technology - Educational Technology and the Learning Experience. At the conference and as dis- cussed in the book over 55 papers on different problems of distance edu- cation explored such issues as 94direct and indirect effects of educa- tional technology on the world of teaching and learning; to what extent are ideas of resource-based learning and- computer-assisted learning reflect- ed in actual changes in the curricu- lum and teaching methods in formal educational systems; what should edu- cational technology now be aiming to achieve; and what do we expect as its contribution to the quality of educa- tion in general? This book is actual and useful in the contemporary educational situa- tion, when distance education becomes more and more popular. A. Prckhorov THE OVERSEAS STUDENT QUESTION Peter Williams ed. Heinemann Publ..London, 1981, 301 p. The question of how to handle a massive influx of foreign students is currently debated in many European countries. The most radical solution, i.e. make overseas students pay the real price of their studies, has been introduced in Great Britain and this new book bespeaks of a definite pub- lic, international interest. Many arguments have been used from both sides, and this book is not about to give a clear-cut answer but rather produces relevant facts and data that have a bearing on the issue at hand and brings substance to a heated controversial discussion. Well-known specialists contribute their knowledge to elucidate specific points, such as Mark Blaug on the economic costs and benefits of overseas students, William Wollan on foreign and com- mercial policy implications, Guy Hunter on the needs of developing countries for foreign study facili- ties, Alan Smith and others on foreign student flows and policies. All in all, this book represents a diversi- fied, sober and pragmatic approach which prompts the reader to adopt a more balanced attitude, such as that expressed in the conclusing chapter which calls, among other- proposals, for a division of financial responsi- bility. The extensive annexes, a bibliography and an index successfully conclude a constructive book. W. Vollmann ZEITSCHRIFT FUR HOCHSCHULDIDAKTIK (ZFH) (Journal for didactics in higher education] The ZfH is a new journal on higher education published by the Austrian Association on Higher Educa- tion, It was founded in 1978 and aims to be a medium of communication about problems of higher education among German-speaking administrators and scientists in this field. Some of the publications also contain contribu- tions in the English language in order to improve the flow of information between the international community and the German readers. The publisher takes into consideration that higher education today is a worlwide under- taking. Consequently, one of its recent editions [1/81D "Pädagogische Fort- bildung für Hochschullehrer" (Staff development in higher education) was edited by Brigitte Eckstein, one of the doyens of German higher education and Walter Looss (West Germany). Those who contributed to this publication come from Austria,' Federal Republic of Germany, The Netherlands, England, Denmark, Switzerland, Canada, South Africa, the USA and Norway. Actually, the tendency to interna- tionalize the ZfH reflects the situa- tion that Europe has only few, and the German speaking countries have, to my knowledge, no comparable commu- nication media. Another general publi- cation (3/4, 1979) is about "Univer- sitätsausbildung und Arbeitsmarkt" (Higher Education and Employment) edited by Herbert Altrichter (Austria). 95Besides these general themes, there have been also volumes with more specific orientations like "Distant Learning" (1/80), "Counselling" (3/80), or special editions about teaching medicine (S 2) and teaching mathematics (S 1 and S 2) or Social Sciences (S 4). For 1982 the following themes are planned (1/82) "Lehrerbil- durig an den Hochschulen" (Educating Teachers in Higher Education), (2/82) "Öffnung dev Universitäten" (Broadening the Access to Higher Education), (2/82) "Hochschullehrerausbildung II" (Faculty Development) and (4/82) "Uni-Alltag" (Socialization in Higher Education). Contributers are kindly invited to send papers to: Österreichische Gesellschaft für Hochschuldidaktik (Ed.), A-1043 Wien, Postfach 51, Austria. OTHER BOOKS AND DOCUMENTS RECEIVED COMMONWEALTH UNIVERSITIES YEARBOOK 1982 Joint Editors: A, Christodoulou; T. Craig Published by the Association of Commonwealth Universities (ACU), 58th edition, London, 1982, 4 vols. ISBN 0-85143 076 7 EDUCATION/ FETE ET CULTURE (Education, leisure and culture) By Bernard, Régis and al. Presses Universitaires de Lyon Lyon, 1981, 186 p. ISBN 2-7297-0096-X THE DILEMMA OF ENQUIRY AND LEARNING By Pétrie, Hugh G. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1981, 238 p. ISBN 0-226-66349-3 ETHNOLOGIE DE L EDUCATION (Ethnology of education) By Erny, Pierre PUF, Paris, 1981, 205 p. ISBN 2-13-036597-3 EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT IN EUROPE Proceedings of the Hague Conference sponsored by the European Cultural Foundation By Jallade, Jean-Pierre, ed. Trentham Books, Staffordshire, 1981, 234 p. ISBN 0-9507735-0-6 FORMATION PERMANENTE ET CONTRADICTIONS SOCIALES (Continued Education and Social Contradictions) By Dubar, Claude Editions sociales Paris, 1980, 224 p. ISBN 2-209-05396-X BEISPIELE PRAXISORIENTIERTEN STUDIUMS (Examples of practice-oriented study courses) By Kluge, Norbert; Neusei, Aylâ, Teichler, Ulrich BMBW, Bonn, 1981, 236 p. 96NOTES FOR CONTRIBUTORS We invite contributions from scholars and experts who wish to publish in our Bulletin. Manuscripts should be sent to: The Editor "Higher Education in Europe", CEPES, 39 Stirbei Vodà, Bucharest, Romania. Articles should be typed, double spaced, on standard pages with ample margins. The author's name, address and a brief biodata should be stated on. a separate sheet of paper. A bibliographical reference in the text should only indicate the author's name, year of publication and number of page referred to. Notes must be numbered in order and be presented on a separate page. The bibliography should be typed on separate pages by giving the full name of the author, date of publication, full original title (with English translation if appropriate), publisher and place of publication, number of pages. Charts, drawings (drawn with black ink) and tables should be presented on separate pages, the positions of which should be indicated in the text. The articles should not exceed 12 pages, exclusive the bibliography and the notes. The plan for the remaining issues of the Bulletin in 1982 is as follows: - No.3 - "The Humanism of the Contemporary University" Proposed sub-themes: (a) higher education institutions' relations to the various segments of the community (industry, trade unions, associations, minorities, etc.) (b) the response of higher education to such social issues as democratizationj equal opportunity, access for all (c) humanism of contemporary universities as compared to the past (d) teaching of human rights in contemporary universities. - No.4 - "Mutti-Campus Universities" - Their Functioning and Problems Proposed sub-themes: (a) administrative and financial problems - cost efficiency of multi-campus universities as compared to smaller units 97(b) curricula structure and mobility of students within multi-campus universities (c) the incorporation of specialized training units with shorter courses in multi-campus universities, organizational and academic problems (d) advantages and disadvantages of the regional, educational monopoly of multi-campus universities (•e) multi-campus universities' contribution to democratization of higher education. The plan for the four issues of the Bulletin in 19B3 is as follows: No.1/1983 - "Student and teacher's performance in higher education" Sub-themes: - performance of students and effectiveness of the teaching - new forms of assessment of students' knowledge (problems and objectivity] - Evaluation of relations between students and teachers in the teaching-learning process - evaluation of teachers' educational activity (advantages, criteria, limits) No.2/1983 - "Distance higher education - experiences and evaluations" Sub-themes: - Main organizational forms of distance education in different countries: experiences, research, evaluation - Curriculum development in distance education - Motivation of students in distance education versus traditional higher education - Qualitative and quantitative characteristic of distance education clientele - Choice of media in distance education - Cost benefits analysis in distance education No.3/1983 - "Relations between higher education and industry" Sub-themes: - various forms and programmes of interaction (levels, fields, and assessment of these forms) - Management and supervision in co-operative programmes (responsibilities and training) - case-studies of co-operation between higher education and industry 98- co-operative programmes in research and development - advantages and draw-backs of relations between higher education and industry (funding, production and personnel] No.4/1983 - "Problems in the planning and development of higher education" Sub-themes: - planning at the national level to meet the requirements of the labour market, possibilities and methodology - the curricular and other needs of students for preparation for working life, in the context of lifelong education - planning, co-ordination and decision making in institutions of higher education to meet the course and curricular requirements of students and the parent community - planning at national level versus institutional level - problems of co-ordination - the problem of maintaining the dynamism of higher education during a period of nil or negative growth, arising from economic restraint and demographic change, and taking into account the overall objective of democratization of higher education. 99LIST OF CEPES PUBLICATIONS 1-) NEW FORMS OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN EUROPE (Report on a symposium organized at CEPES from 13-15 January 1976. Articles are written in English, French or Russian] Bucharest, 1976, Bibliogr., 185 p. • 2.) THE CONTRIBUTION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN EUROPE TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHANGING SOCIETIES (Report on a symposium organized at CEPES from 21-23 Sept. 1976. Articles are written in English, French or Russian). Bucharest, 1977, Bibliogr., 179 p. (Out of print). 3.) STATISTICAL STUDY ON HIGHER EDUCATION IN EUROPE 1970-75 (In English and in French) Bucharest, 1976, 192 p. (Out of print. New up- dated edition under preparation). 4.) CONSULTATION FOR THE PREPARATION OF A STUDY ON ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN EUROPE (Report on a symposium organized at CEPES from 18-20 October 1977. Articles are written in English, French or Russian). Bucharest, 1978, Bibliogr.,191 p. 5.) ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN EUROPE Bucharest, 1981, 90 p. (also available in French and Russian) ISBN 92-3-101942-2 6-) INTERUNIVERSITY CO-OPERATION IN THE EUROPE REGION Bucharest, 1981, 80 p. (also available in French and Russian) ISBN 92-3-101941-4 7.) L'ENSEIGNEMENT SUPERIEUR EN ROUMANIE Bucharest, 1978, 105 p. (in French only) 8-) L'ENSEIGNEMENT SUPERIEUR EN SUISSE Bucharest, 1981, 77 p. (in French only). ISBN 92-3-201931-0 9.) DIRECTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS prepared by CEPES, Bucharest. Published by IBE, Geneva, 1981, 139 p. Index 10.) DISTANCE EDUCATION FOR THE UP-DATING OF KNOWLEDGE AT POSTGRADUATE LEVEL * Report on a symposium organized by CEPES. (Articles are written in English or French). Bucharest, 1982, Bibliogr. 113 p. 11-) HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES Bucharest, 1982, 83 p. Please note: All publications are available free of charge upon request to the Director, CEPES, 39 Stirbei Vodà, Bucharest, RomaniaThe material appearing in H I G H E R E D U C A T I O N IN E U R O P E expresses the views of its authors and not necessarily those of Unesco. Articles published in the bulletin may be quoted or reprinted, making reference to their source. Les articles paraissant dans l ' E N S E I G N E M E N T S U P E R I E U R E N E U R O P E expriment l'opinion de leurs auteurs et non pas nécessairement celle de l'Unesco. Sauf indication contraire, les articles peuvent être librement traduits, adaptés et reproduits, à condition d'être accompagnés de la mention de leur source. Bce MaTepnanbi, nyônnKyeMbie B BioiuieTeHe BbICUJEE O E P A 3 O B A H M E B E B P O n E BbipawaioT TOHKy 3peHnn M X aBTopOB M MoryT He coBnaaaTb c MHeHMeM I0HECKO. iltoôbie CTaTbn, cooômeHMH, apyriie iwaTepuanbi EKxnneTeHH MoryT nepenenarbiBaTbCFi B noiiHOM win coKpameHHOM M UMTMpOBaTbCH TOnbKO CO CCblJlKOÍi Ha flaHHblíí MCTOMHMK. H I G H E R E D U C A T I O N IN E U R O P E can be received free of charge on request to the Chief Editor of the Bulletin. L ' E N S E I G N E M E N T S U P E R I E U R E N E U R O P E peut être obtenu gratuitement sur demande adressée au Rédacteur en chef du Bulletin. EionjieTeHb "BbICUJEE O B P A 3 O B A H M E B E B P O n E " Bbi Moweïe nonymiTb 6ecnnaTHO, ecJiM 3a6jiaroBpeMeHHO cooômuTe 06 3T0M B

  • Introduction
  • About Case Study Reports

Section A: Overview

  • Section B: Planning and Researching
  • Section C: Parts of a Case Study
  • Section D: Reviewing and Presenting
  • Section E: Revising Your Work
  • Section F: Resources
  • Your Workspace
  • Guided Writing Tools

Reflective Writing guide

  • About Lab Reports
  • Section C: Critical Features
  • Section D: Parts of a Lab Report

Reflective Writing guide

  • About Literature Review
  • Section C: Parts of a Literature Review
  • Section D: Critical Writing Skills

Lab Report writing guide

  • About Reflective Writing
  • Section B: How Can I Reflect?
  • Section C: How Do I Get Started?
  • Section D: Writing a Reflection

Write Online Help

Case Study Report Prepared by University of Guelph

This section will provide you with an overview of case study reports and what components you should include when writing them.

What Will I Learn?

By successfully completing this section, you should be able to:

  • describe what a case study report is and how it is used,
  • identify the components of a case study and how they fit together, and
  • explain why case studies are popular in business education.

Female student writing a case study report.

Prepared by

University of Guelph

In general, a case study is a historical or fictional description of a business situation. Case studies are stories that contain a particular management problem or decision that needs to be made. They are usually very detailed and contain information about key stakeholders, organizational processes, products, markets, financials, and so on.

The case study method of teaching plays an important role in management education (e.g., Banning, 2003) and is commonly used in management education programs (e.g., Conger & Xin, 2000). Case studies present vivid and engaging examples of realistic business situations that allow students to apply theoretical concepts (Barkley, Cross, & Major, 2005).

A Case Study Is:

a partial, historical, clinical study of a situation which has confronted a practising administrator or managerial group. Presented in a narrative form to encourage student involvement, it provides data—substantive and process—essential to analysis of a specific situation, for the framing of alternative action programs, and for their implementation, recognising the complexity and ambiguity of the practical world.

(Barnes, Christensen, and Hansen, 1994, p. 44)

As Barnes et al. (1994) explain in the definition above, an engaging case study will provide a managerial dilemma that models the complexity of real world business decisions. Moreover, these decisions need to be made considering the analysis of data, assessment of viable alternatives, proposed recommendations, and associated implementation plan.

Components of A Case Study Report

What should a case study report include.

The components of a case study report will vary depending on the preferences of your institution and instructor. Be sure to refer to your assignment instructions to find out what will be required in your context.

Most case study reports will include the following major sections and components:

  • Cover page including basic student and class information
  • Table of contents showing where key parts of the report can be found
  • Executive summary of the key recommendations and points of the report
  • Introduction to the report and identification of the focal problem being faced
  • Analysis of the problem and application of course/program content
  • Decision criteria and possible alternatives for solving the problem
  • Recommendation for solving the problem
  • Implementation plan for executing the recommendation and ensuring its success
  • Exhibits that help to elaborate upon the content included in the report
  • Reference list of any sources that were used at any point in the case study project

There are many possible subsections within these components. The following information provides a more detailed explanation of each component as well as specific strategies to help with writing.

Case Study Report Template

What are the components of a case study presentation.

The components of a case study presentation will likely also vary depending on the preferences of your institution and instructor; however, most case study presentations will likely include an oral as well as a visual (e.g., PowerPoint) summary of the 10 major sections and components. The case study report template provided will give you with a method for presenting your case study project as well as specific strategies to help with presenting the various sections.

Case Study Report Outline Template

This outline sample of a Case Study Report should serve as a useful guide to help you get started.

Download PDF

Download the Case Study Report Outline Template .

Preview: PDF Worksheet

Case Study Sample: Cover Page

Business Courses and Case Studies

Why do business courses use case studies.

This short video introduces business case study reports by highlighting why case studies are popular in business education and what you can expect as a learner completing a case study report.

Section Photo

Business Case Studies

Video : Four awesome things about business case studies.

Business Case Studies | MP4 Video (01:03)

Four awesome things about business case studies. Number one; case studies give you a chance to examine business problems you might actually encounter in real life. Cases are based on real situations or realistic scenarios simulating complex and ambiguous problems from the business world. Number two; case studies can help you strengthen your critical thinking and problem-solving skills. You'll get practice analyzing stakeholders, organizational processes, and financial constraints. And you'll learn how to make decisions and solve problems in a safe and transparent environment. Number three; case studies are not lectures [snoring]. Enough said. Number four; case study assignments combine writing, research and oral presentation sells. All stuff you want to get better, right?

Self Assessment

  • Which of the following was part of the definition of a case study as presented in this section?
  • Which of the following was not one of the major sections and components mentioned in this section?
  • Case studies were first developed as:
  • The components of a case study report will likely be exactly the same across institutions and instructors.

Key Takeaways and References

Key takeaways & references, key takeaways.

  • Case studies are rich, vivid situational exercises that can be used to make decisions and solve problems in a safe and transparent environment.
  • Most case study reports follow an established pattern of core components with some variations depending on the context of the report.
  • Case study reports allow business students an opportunity to hone their critical thinking skills for the complex and ambiguous situations that they are likely to encounter at work.

Banning, K. (2003). The effect of the case method on tolerance for ambiguity . Journal of Management Education, 27, 556–568.

Barkley, E. F, Cross, K. P. & Major, C. H. (2005). Collaborative learning techniques: A handbook for college faculty . San-Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Barnes, L. B., Christensen, C. R., & Hansen, A. B. (1994). Teaching and the case method (3rd ed.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Conger, J. A., & Xin, K. (2000). Executive education in the 21st century . Journal of Management Education, 24, 73–101.

Redpath, L. (2012). Confronting the bias against on-line learning in management education . Academy of Management Learning & Education, 11, 125–140.

University of Guelph. (2015). Four awesome things about business case studies [WriteOnline_GUELPHIntro.mp4]. Published with GoAnimate:

University of Guelph. (2015). Case Study Report Outline Template . (PDF).

Young, S. (2006). Student views of effective online teaching in higher education . The American Journal of Distance Education, 20, 65–77.

Next Section Overview

In Section B: Planning and Researching, we will explore how to analyze your case study report assignment and create a writing plan.

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Case study: writing a case study for b.ed. third year tu.

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Dotnepal presents its collection of Educational Materials such as thesis, proposals, case studies for the Inter, Bachelor, Master level students to empower them in writing skills, provide them with sample notes. Here we go with B.Ed. Third year Case Study for B.Ed. program in TU:

A Case Study Report of

Taudaha Rastriya H.S School Taudaha, Kirtipur (2009).

Submitted to

Tribhuwan University Faculty of Education

Mahendra Ratna Campus, Tahachal, Kathmandu

Partial fulfillment of B.Ed. third year (English Department)

Teaching practice

Presented by

B.Ed third year

Mahendra Ratna Campus, Tahachal, Kathmandu.

Campus Roll No.

T.U. Regd. No.9-2-55-797-

  • Background of the study                                               1
  • Significance of the study                                               1
  • Statement of the problem                                             2
  • Objectives of the study                                                   2
  • Delimitation of the study                                               3
  • Methodology of the study                                              3
  • Conclusion of the study                                                  9

Annex A                                                                                          

Background of the study.

Case study is an investigative task that is to be done by every student teacher during his/her practice teaching in school This is an investigative study of a student about his / her different aspects to find out the strengths or weakness of the student and to find out the solutions for solving the problems. As a student of B.Ed. III year, I also went to Taudaha H.S School, Kathmandu for my practice teaching. During my practice teaching in the school, I taught in grade seven, I observed all of the students of the class. I selected one intelligent student of the class Mr. Bikash K.C Kapoor for the case study. I selected him because he is the most intelligent student in the class and he has secured the highest marks in him first terminal exam 2009.

Significance of the study

It is said, “A good teacher has to read every page of the students”. A teacher’s main task is to teach the students and make them learn new things. But the teacher cannot be always successful in achieving his goal because sometimes the students fail to learn what the teacher teaches. The teacher generally thinks that the students fail their examination because they do not care about their study. But this is not the sole cause of failure. There may be various causes of the failure. There may be some physical, psychological, economic, educational and environmental problems that create hindrance in study. If a teacher neglects all these factors of a student and confines his work just in teaching, his objective will never be achieved. So a teacher has to study all the relevant matters of the students that have been affecting in his/her study to treat him/her psychologically and diagnostically. Case study is an investigative and detail study of a student. It helps a teacher to get each and every detailed information about the student- personal, familial, social, educational, economic, etc. It helps the person, who studies, to find out the matters or causes that have helped or affected the study of the student. It helps to find out the psychological and other factors of the student that have been either assistance or hindrance in his/her study and other activities. A person can find the factors contributing to make a person either extra-ordinary or dull. It helps in treating the students diagnostically and psychologically providing feed back to the teacher. Such kind of study may help in the study and investigation of other similar students, too.

Statement of the problem

In course of practice teaching. I have taught in class seven in Taudaha H.S. School. Among 25 students, Mr. Bikash K.C one intelligent student has been selected for case study. He is the most intelligent student in the class. He has secured high marks in his first terminal examination 2009. The main objective of this study is to find out the reasons how Bikash K.C became an extra-ordinary and how he can do better than this. The study is concerned with the investigation of the factors that contribute to make his intelligent.

Objective of the study

A study or investigation without any objectives becomes haphazard and cannot meet its target. This study has been done taking certain objectives. The main objectives of this study are as follows:

  • To find out why Mr. Bikash K.C is an extra- ordinary student.
  • To find out the factors or matters that has been hindrance in his study.
  • To find out his family background.
  • To find out what his family’s economic condition is.
  • To find out the social and educational background of his family.
  • To find out what types of behaviors he performs with his peers and teachers.
  • To find out his educational status.
  • To suggest him to do better in future.
  • To suggest the teachers and his parents to improve his educational condition and activities.
  • To get feedback to treat the student psychologically and diagnostically.

Delimitation of the study

Every investigation has its own limitations. Due to limitation of time, money and labor, an investigator has to limit his/her study or investigation.  This study also has some limitations. An Investigator cannot study and investigate each and everything of a person. I have limited this study only to Mr. Bikash K.C. This study is confined within the personal, educational, familial, economic, psychological and behavioral aspects of Mr. Bikash K.C.

In course of this study, I have interviewed the student, his English teacher and the principal of the school. I have interviewed only few students of his class for this study. I have involved some other teachers of the school in this study. Other necessary information has been collected from observation of the student’s activities and behavior.

Methodology   of the study

Any study or investigation needs some data and information to find out the desired facts. Certain sources of data collection are to be consulted for data collection. There are different tools of data collection that are to be applied in the study during data collection. The sources of data, tools of data collection and methods of data collection applied in course of the study are listed below:

  • Sources of data collection

The following sources have been consulted as sources of data during the study to collect necessary data & information.

  • Mr. Bikash K.C. – the student himself.
  • Mr. Anil K.C. – the student’s father

iii. Mr. Sovit Ram Karki – the principal of the school.

  • Mr. Shatrughan pd.Singh- The subject teacher.
  • Staff of the school.
  • School Record

vii. The student’s peers of class 7 etc.

  • Tools of data collection

The following tools of data collection have been used in the data collection in this study:

  • Some questionnaires
  • Questionnaire forms

iii. Notes, etc.

  • Methods of data collection

The data and information have been collected applying the following methods:

  • Different questionnaires
  • Observation of the student’s activities and behaviors

iii. Interview with the teachers

  • Interview with the student’s peers
  • Face to face talk with the student, etc.

Interpretation and analysis of data

  • General introduction of the student

General introduction of the student has been given below

Name                             : Mr. Bikash K.C Kapoor

School                            : Shree Taudaha H.S School

Class                              : 7

Roll No.                         : 1

Gender                           : Male

Age                                : 13 years

Date of Birth                  : 01-05-2053

Religion                         : Hindu

Permanent Address        : Saibu Lalitpur

Temporary Address       : Saibu Lalitpur

Fathers’ Name                : Mr. Anil K.C Kapoor

Occupation                    : Businessman

Mother’s Name              : Ambika K.C Kapoor

Occupation                    : Housewife

No. of family members  : 5

Elder Brother                 : Bikkey K.C.

Name of Sister               : Anu K.C

Date of Admission         : 2060

Future Aim                    : To be an Pilot

Mr. Bikash K.C is a student of class 7 in Taudaha H.S School

He is the most intelligent student in the class. He was born on 1 st   Bhadra 2053B.S. as the second son of Mr. Anil K.C and Mrs. Ambika K.C in Kathmandu and has been living in Saibu, Kathmandu with his  parents elder sister and brother. His religion is Hindu. His father is a businessman and her mother is a housewife. Her elder sister and brother are students. His favorites subject is science, Nepali and English. His aim is to become an pilot.

  • Student’s familial background

According to the student, there are altogether 5 members in his family- father, mother, elder sister, elder brother and student himself. They are the residents of Kathmandu but have been living in Kathmandu. I have presented and analyzed the data about the educational and economical condition of the family.

i. Economic condition of the family

Main occupation:                              Temporary job.

Father’s occupation:                          Businessman

Mother’s occupation:                        Housewife

Monthly familial income:                  Tolerable

Source of income:                             Business

According to the student and his father, his father has a Business. Familial income is tolerable and the source of income is father’s business. According to them their economic status is medium.

ii. Educational condition of the family

According to the above data, his parents are Literate. His father is S.L.C passed. But according to the student himself, his father guides him and his sister and brother in their study.

iii. Student’s health condition

Height         :         4.5ft.

Weight        :         29 kg.

Eye sight     :         good

Hearing       :         good

Disease       :         normal health problem (sometimes)

From the above data, it is clear to see that his health condition is good. He is neither two fat nor to thin. He likes to have Nepali dishes and fruits. As a whole we can conclude that his study is not affected by his health.

3. Student’s activities in school and house

According to the principal of the school and gradate teacher of class he attends his classes most often. He is clever in other activities. He is neat and clean. He is serious in his study. He asks questions with the teachers only sometimes. He does his homework most often. Sometimes he participates in extra-curricular activities. He is co-operative, obedient and loyal to his teachers. His behavior with his friends is satisfactory. He does not   make noise in class and pays attention to the teachers and listens to them. I am also his English teacher. In my opinion, he is the most intelligent, obedient and loyal student.    According to his peers in the class, He sometimes talks in the class and makes noise. He pays attention to the teachers. He never disturbs others.

According to the student himself and his father, he spends most of his time in study and studies seriously. He studies four hours in house each day. During his examination, he studies for about 10 hours. His parents are helpful in activities of house. His father inspires him in his study and pays more attention to his study. His father says that he sometimes quarrels in house. Sometimes he listens to the radio, watching TV and plays some games, too.

Student’s discipline

According to the teachers and the peers of the student his discipline is Good. He respects his teacher and other seniors and loves the juniors. He loves and co-operates her friends. He is neat and clean. He does his homework regularly. He does not make noise in the classroom and pay attention to his study. But he is sometime bad tampered. It is his weakness.

Student’s educational condition

Here, I have presented the marks-sheet of Mr. Bikash K.C. of the first terminal examination of class 7 taken in 2009.

Percent: 60.48%

Division: First

Position: 1 st

Result: Passed

The marks show that he is very intelligent in his study. He had passed the first terminal exams of grade7 in 2009 and is studying in the same class now. This shows that his educational condition is very nice. In classroom also, he answers the question asked to him. He is intelligent and extra-ordinary.

Conclusion and suggestion

I completed the case study in short period but I tried to collect more data and information as far as possible. I studied and analyzed the available data information. The data and information show that Mr. Bikash K.C, a student of grade 7 in Taudaha H.S School and the younger son of Mr. Anil K.C and Mrs. Ambika K.C is very intelligent student in his study from the analysis of the data, I came to the conclusion that he has become an extra-ordinary in his study due to the following causes or reason:

  • He attends his class regularly.
  • He pays to his study. He does not make noise in the class and listens to the teacher.
  • He does his homework regularly.
  • The teachers pay more attention to the students personally.
  • His educational background is nice.
  • His father wants to make his son more educated person.
  • Suggestions

(i)      Suggestions for the school

The children are the pillars of nation. The children of today are the good citizens of future to handle the nation and drive the nation to its bright future. They need proper education today. Some students are extra-ordinary in every class. The teachers as well as parents should not leave them without any care. The student Bikash K.C is different from other students. His aim in future is to be a Pilot. He is in need of extra activity to achieve better result. I would like to give the following suggestions:

  • The school should manage enough instructional materials and educational programs in the school.
  • The school should give more emphasis to such students in teaching and learning and also in other extra-curricular activities.
  • The school should give more emphasis to students’ discipline.
  • The school should call the parents of the students and get information about the students. It should establish good relationship with the parents and should have mutual co-operation.
  • School administration should supervise teaching and other activities of the teachers and should provide necessary guidelines.
  • The teachers should pay more attention to such students and give more time for the students to practice.
  • Student-centered method in teaching and learning is more necessary in the school.
  • The teachers should discourage talking in the class and encourage practice, doing homework etc.

(ii)     Suggestions for the student’s family

  • The family should manage enough instructional materials for the student.
  • The parents should encourage him in his study and should discourage unnecessary activities.

 (iii)   Suggestions for the student

I want to give the following suggestions to the student Mr. Bikash K.C:

  • You should pay more attention to your study.
  • You should listen attentively to your teachers and should practice given homework.
  • Do your homework regularly and if you don’t understand anything, don’t hesitate to ask your teachers.
  • You should not talk in the classroom. You must be more serious towards your study. You have to reach your goal.
  • Give more time to your study.
  • Try to learn many things from your friends but don’t adopt bad things.
  • Take suggestions from your teachers and your parents to improve your educational condition.
  • Name of the student:                                                           Class:

Address:                                                                                            Roll No.:

Date of birth:                                                                                     School:

Father’s Name

Mother’s Name:

Weight of student:

Height of student:

Date of admission at school:

  • Other information

2.1 When did you start study at this school?


2.2 Do you come to regularly?

  • always b. Seldom       c. mostly           d. rarely

2.3 What is your aim in life?


2.4 Which subject do you like most?


2.5 How many hours do you study at home?


2.6 What do you do at home in your holiday?

2.7 Do you help your father mother? How?

2.8which book do read expect your textbook?


  • English literature b. Nepali literature                 c. science
  • history e. mathematics        f. newspaper

2.9 do you watch TV?

  • always   b. mostly                        c. very little                                   d. never

2.10 do you watch TV? Which programmed do you like most?


2.11do you do your homework given by the teacher?

2.12who is your best teacher?

2.13With whom do you ask if you get any confusion.

  • friends b. related subject teacher c . Father mother
  • brother sister e. tuition

2.14 How do you study at home?

  • alone b. with brother sister

2.15 What types of materials do the students need to study?


2.16 which subject is difficult to study for you?


2.17 which is your favorite subject?

2.18 Which subject do you study much?

2.19 Which subject do you study less?


2.20 What is your favorite game?


2.21 Do you like music?

2.22 Do you fight with your brother and sister?

  • always b. seldom c. never

2.23 In which matter does you fight with your brother and sister?


2.24 Do your father –mother scolds you?

  • always b. seldom                         c. never

2.25Do you quarrel with your father and mother?

  • always                   b. seldom                         c. never         d. mostly

2.26What do your father and mother does if you quarrel with them?

  • scolding b. beating c. suggest                d. nothing

2.27Do you consult Doctor while you fall in sick?


2.28 What do you have every day as your meal?


2.29What do you like to eat as your lunch?


2.30How do you evaluate yourself?

  • Capable b. middle        c. common                   d. weak

2.31 How do your parents help you?

  • Remove confusion
  • Suggest to study
  • Buy necessary materials
  • Give money only

2.32 What do you do if you couldn’t understand the lesson taught by your teachers?

  • ask with teacher b. ask with students c. ask with father and mother

2.33 Tell your three good habits.

2.34 Tell your three bad habits.

2.35 Why didn’t you go to study in boarding school?


2.36 Which colors do you like most?

2.37 Which animal do you like?

2.38 Tell the name of a great national hero?

2.39 What are the main qualities of a student?

2.40 Who is your favorite friend?

2.41 Do you like to have entertainment inside the classroom?

  • always b. never c. mostly       d. seldom

2.42 Do you fight with your friend?

2.43 Do you have to tell anything else?

For Subject Teacher:

Name of Student:

This Questionnaire is prepared for child study.

You are requested to fill up true answers only.

Name of teacher:

  • What three strong points do you see in your student?
  • What are the three weak points of Bikash K.C.?
  • Discipline of your student
  • quiet discipline b. good    c. well  d. well  e. Not at all
  • Regularity and punctuality of your student
  • always b. seldom   c. mostly
  • What suggestions do you give for his better performance?

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  • 1. JSS MAHAVIDYAPETA JSS INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.), COLLEGE SAKALESHPUR, HASSAN SUBJECT- CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE SEMINAR ON CASE STUDY Presented By, Guided by, Ms. Supriya B. K Dr. Dinesh M. K & Dr. Vikram C. B 1st semester (B.Ed.) Assistant professor Student trainee Department of education JSS institute of education JSS institute of education (B.Ed.) Sakleshpur, Hassan College, Sakleshpur, Hassan.
  • 2. Contents  Introduction  Meaning, definition  Characteristic features  Stage of diagnosis  Stage of treatment  Steps involved in case study  Merits  limitations  Conclusion  References
  • 3. Introduction  Case study is a form of qualitative descriptive research that is used to look at individuals, a small group of participants, or a group as a whole.  This is qualitative method of study emphasizes detailed contextual analysis of a limited number of events or conditions and their relationships.  Researchers have used the case study research method for many years across a variety of disciplines.  Case studies can be used in a variety of fields including psychology, medicine, education, anthropology, political science and social work.
  • 4. Meaning and definition  A case study is an in-depth study of one person, group, or event.  Case study involves the intensive investigation of the particular case or an individual.  A case is a research strategy and an empirical inquiry that investigates phenomenon within its real-life context. (Yin)  Case study is a comprehensive study of a social unit, be it a person, a group of persons, an institution, a community or a family. (P V Young)
  • 5. Characteristic features  This method is applicable to an individual case or an institution.  This method involves a clinician and an individual having behavioral problems or an institution with some problems.  This method employs the method of diagnosis and method of treatment.  Case study carried out under two stages namely stage of diagnosis and state of treatment.
  • 6. Stage of diagnosis  In the first stage, the clinician diagnosis the behavioral problems by collecting detailed information, analyzing and interpreting it.  The complete information of past history and present condition is collected.  The information is collected from various sources viz., from his parents, his friends, neighbors, doctor, teacher, peer group etc.  The following information is collected to analyze the causes for a problem in an individual.  Preliminary information- Name, age, sex, parent’s age, education, occupation, income, number of children in a family, socio-economic status.  Past history- Family history, individual’s health history, relation between parents and the child, relation with other members in family, previous education record etc.
  • 7.  Present condition- some information about these aspects i. Physical- medical examination report. ii. Cognitive- general mental ability, IQ, special abilities. iii. Social- Home environment, social environment in school, home and neighborhood, relation with peer group and friends. iv. Emotional- stable/ unstable, anxiety, temperament, frustration, stress etc. v. Interests- personal, social, vocational interests. vi. School achievement- position in school, special achievements etc. vii. Personality type- introvert/ Extrovert/ Ambivert etc.  The complete and detailed study of a case may involve the use of observation, interview, medical examination, use of various tests of intelligence, personality, aptitude and interest.
  • 8. Stage of treatment  By giving the treatment clinician tries to bring a change in the behavior of a client so he may adjust well to his environment.  Therefore treatment involves changes in the behavior of the client.  This is possible by modifying the environment in which the client lives.
  • 9. Steps involved in case study 1. Identification and defining a problem. 2. Collection of data from different sources. 3. Descriptive analysis of data. 4. Identifying the causes for the problem. 5. Suggesting and planning remedial measures. 6. Implementing remedial programme. 7. Evaluation of remedial programme and follow up work.  Developmental case studies are conducted by following a longitudinal approach or cross sectional approach.
  • 10. Merits  It provides comprehensive and complete information about an individual’s behavior in relation to his environment.  It is best method for diagnostic study of the cases.  It provides information regarding the behavioral problem of the individual and possible remedial measures to overcome the problem.  This method is useful in solving problems of backwardness in learning, reading disability, emotional disturbances, isolation and delinquent behaviors.
  • 11. limitations  The information is collected by the individual, parents and his friends may or may not be true. The information is not verifiable and is highly subjective.  Subjectivity on the part of the clinician comes in the way of effective case study.  Case study is time consuming and a costly method.  It needs technically trained person to collect and study human behavior.  The results cannot be generalized and limited in scope.
  • 12. Conclusion  Case study is a valuable method of research, with distinctive characteristics that make it ideal for many types of investigations. It can also be used in combination with other methods.  This method is used to collect detailed information on the behavior problems of maladjusted and deviated cases.  Case study helps to understand the root causes of maladjustment.  The objective of case study is to detect the behavioral problems seen in individual and to suggest treatment.  This method is used very much in abnormal psychology, social psychology, clinical psychology and educational psychology.
  • 13. References  Dr. Vamadevappa, H. V., 2013. Psychology Of Learning And Instruction(educational Psychology), Shreyas Publications. Pp. 16-18.  stages-sources 
  • 14. Thank you



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