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HOW TO WRITE A LITERATURE REVIEW
Contents show PURPOSE OF A LITERATURE REVIEW OUTLINE OF A LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction Body Conclusion STEPS TO WRITING A GOOD LITERATURE REVIEW Do’s Dont’s CONCLUSION A literature review can be defined as a summary and explanation of the whole and current state of knowledge on a certain topic as found in academic books and journal. In college, there are two types of reviews you might be told to write:
A stand-alone assignment in a course as part of their training in research processes in your discipline.
A review composed as part of an introduction to a longer work (a research report or thesis).
Your review’s focus and viewpoint and the thesis argument you make will be determined by the type of literature review that you’re writing. One approach to understanding the two types above is by going through already published reviews or the initial chapters of theses in your field. Examine the structure of their arguments and take note of the manner in which issues are addressed.
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PURPOSE OF A LITERATURE REVIEW
It offers an excellent basis for researchers starting to research a new area by forcing them to summarize, examine, and compare original research in that particular area.
It provides readers with easy access to carry out research on a certain topic by choosing high quality articles that are pertinent, meaningful, and legitimate and then summarizing them into one comprehensive report.
It highlights significant findings.
It points out inconsistencies, gaps, and contradictions in the literature.
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OUTLINE OF A LITERATURE REVIEW
This section elucidates the focus and establishes the significance of the subject matter. It talks about the kind of work that has been done on the subject and identifies controversies within the field or research done that has raised questions about previous assumptions.
The introduction of a literature review ends with a thesis statement. In a stand-alone review, this thesis statement will summarize and evaluate the state of the art in this field of research. In a review that is an introduction to a thesis or research report, it will propose how the review findings will lead to the research the author intends to carry out. An example of a literature review introduction is:
‘ Several theories have been brought forward to elucidate what influences human behavior. Even though the literature covers several such theories, this review will concentrate on five main themes that frequently appear throughout the literature being reviewed; motivation, the increasing significance of internal forces of motivation, self-control and autonomy as sources of motivation, and narcissism as an important element of motivation. Even though the literature presents these themes in various contexts, this paper will mainly concentrate on their application to self-motivation.’
This section, which is mostly divided by subheadings, summarizes and examines the current state of knowledge in the field. It notes main themes, the most significant trends, and findings on which researchers approve or disapprove. In case the review is preliminary to your research project, its objective is to make an argument that will validate your proposed research. Thus, it will talk about only the research leads to your project.
It sums up the evidence presented and shows its importance. If the review is an introduction to your research, it pinpoints gaps and shows how past research leads to your research project and selected methodology. If the review is a stand-alone assignment or a certain course, it should propose any practical applications of the research and also the implications and possibilities for future research. For example:
‘ In this chapter, the literature review has focused on experiential observations of trickling filters. At the micro level, oxygen impacts and substrate limitations in the reactions happening within the biofilm have been examined. Trickling filter functioning at the macro level has been considered in terms of state variables like hydraulic rate and packing depth. Significant concepts like liquid residence time, have been introduced and utilized to qualitatively elucidate some features of filter behavior.
It’s important to create a theory for the process to quantify filter behavior. The theory may be a complicated mechanistic model or a simple empirical connection. All trickling filter theories are based on empirical observation. Therefore this chapter offers a basis for the next, whereby the advancement of trickling filter theories is defined, and design equations are examined.”
STEPS TO WRITING A GOOD LITERATURE REVIEW
Look for a Working Topic
Examine your area of study. Ponder what interests you, and what the ideal ground for study is. Talk to your instructor, brainstorm, and go through recent issues of periodicals in your field.
Review the Literature
Search a computer database using keywords. Make use of at least two databases pertinent to your discipline. Keep in mind that the reference lists of recent articles can lead to important papers. Moreover, ensure that you incorporate studies contrary to your viewpoint.
Focus Your Topic Narrowly
When writing your literature review, mull over the following: What interests you? What interests others? What duration of research will you contemplate?
Select an area of research which is due for a review.
Go Through Selected Articles
What assumptions do most researchers make? Which methodologies do they utilize? Examine and synthesize research findings and conclusions drawn. Take note of the names of experts in your field who are frequently referenced. Moreover, take note of conflicting theories and results.
Organize the Selected Papers by Searching For Patterns and Creating Subtopics
Observe things like findings that are common, important trends in the research, and the most significant theories.
Come Up With a Working Thesis
Compose a one or two statement that summarizes the conclusion you’ve arrived at about the significant trends you see in the research carried out on your subject.
Organize Your Own Paper Based On Findings from Steps 4 And 5
Come up with headings. If your literature review is extensive, look for a large surface and place post-it notes to organize your findings into segments. Move them around if you decide they fit better under various headings, or you need to ascertain new headings.
Compose Your Paper’s Body
Stick to the plan developed above, ensuring that every section links logically to the one before and after, and that you’ve split your sections by themes, not by reporting individual theorists’ work.
Evaluate What You’ve Written
Concentrate on analysis, not description. Examine the topic sentences of every paragraph. If you were to go through these sentences only, would you find that your paper brought forward a vivid position, logically developed from start to finish? For instance, if you find out that every paragraph starts with a researcher’s name, it might portray that rather than examining and comparing the research literature from an analytical viewpoint, you simply have described what research has been done. It’s one of the most common issues with literature reviews by students. If your paper doesn’t seem to be defined a guiding concept or doesn’t analyze the literature critically, you need to create a fresh outline based on what you’ve said in every section and paragraph of your paper.
For instance, take a look at the literature review example apa passages below and note that the first literature review sample (student 1) is just describing the literature and the second literature review example (student 2) takes a more analytical approach by comparing and contrasting:
‘ Smith (20000) deduces that personal privacy in their living quarters is the most significant factor in nursing home residents’ view of their autonomy. He proposes that the physical environment in the more public places of the building didn’t impact much on their viewpoints. The layout of the building and the available activities don’t make much difference. Jones and Johnstone claim that the need to have control on one’s environment is a vital need of life (2001), and propose that the approach of most institutions (which is to offer total care), may be as bad as no care at all. If individuals have no choices, they become depressed.’
‘ After examining residents and staff from two intermediate care facilities in Calgary, Smith (2000) arrived at the conclusion that barring the amount of personal privacy available to residents, the physical environment of these institutions had nominal if any effect on their views of control. Nonetheless, French (1998) and Haroon (2000) found that the availability of private areas isn’t the sole feature of the physical environment that ascertains residents’ autonomy. Haroon interviewed 11 residents from 32 different nursing homes that have various level of autonomy (2000). It was discovered that physical structures like standardized furniture and heating that couldn’t be regulated individually constrained their feelings of independence. Furthermore, Hope (2002), who cross-examined 225 residents from different nursing homes, validate the claim that characteristics of the institutional environment like location are features that residents have mentioned as being important to their independence.’
Revise and Edit Your Work
After you’ve finished writing your literature review, you need to:
Read your work out loud. You’ll be able to identify better where you have to put punctuation marks to indicate pauses or decisions in sentences or where you’ve made grammatical mistakes.
Ensure that all citations and references are correct (if it’s a literature review apa, make sure the referencing has been done accordingly).
Because the objective of a review is to showcase that the writer is familiar with the crucial professional literature on the selected topic, check to ensure that all the significant, current, and pertinent texts have been covered.
Text ought to be composed in a clear and concise style.
Sentences must flow logically and smoothly.
In the sciences, the use of subheadings to organize the literature review is recommended.
There should be no grammatical or spelling mistakes.
Do not plagiarize by either failing to cite a source or by utilizing words quoted directly from a source (it’s recommended that if you take three or more words straight from a source, you ought to put those words within quotation marks and then cite the page).
The text should not be descriptive in nature or use the language of everyday speech.
Reporting isolated statistical results instead of synthesizing them in chi-squared methods.
Text that doesn’t explain the search procedures that were used in identifying the literature to review.
Having sources in your literature review that don’t relate to the research problem.
Not taking ample time to define and pinpoint the most pertinent primary research studies.
There you have it. The above approaches on how to write a literature review will assist you to come up with the best review. Remember that, even as you consult any example of literature review, don’t plagiarize other peoples’ works. Also, your text should be written vividly and concisely.
Please be advised that the journal will be unavailable for 30 minutes on Monday, July 26, 2021, starting at 9:30 AM EST. This downtime is scheduled for necessary upgrades. We apologize for the inconvenience that this may cause.
A Systematic Literature Review of Students as Partners in Higher Education
- Lucy Mercer-Mapstone University of Queensland
- Sam Lucie Dvorakova University of Queensland
- Kelly E Matthews University of Queensland
- Sophia Abbot Trinity University
- Breagh Cheng McMaster University
- Peter Felten Elon University
- Kris Knorr McMaster University
- Elizabeth Marquis McMaster University
- Rafaella Shammas McMaster University
- Kelly Swaim Elon University
“Students as Partners” (SaP) in higher education re-envisions students and staff as active collaborators in teaching and learning. Understanding what research on partnership communicates across the literature is timely and relevant as more staff and students come to embrace SaP. Through a systematic literature review of empirical research, we explored the question: How are SaP practices in higher education presented in the academic literature? Trends across results provide insights into four themes: the importance of reciprocity in partnership; the need to make space in the literature for sharing the (equal) realities of partnership; a focus on partnership activities that are small scale, at the undergraduate level, extracurricular, and focused on teaching and learning enhancement; and the need to move toward inclusive, partnered learning communities in higher education. We highlight nine implications for future research and practice.
Lucy mercer-mapstone, university of queensland, sam lucie dvorakova, university of queensland, kelly e matthews, university of queensland, sophia abbot, trinity university.
Sophia Abbot is a Fellow for Collaborative Programs at the Collaborative for Learning and Teaching at Trinity University, United States.
Breagh Cheng, McMaster University
Peter felten, elon university, kris knorr, mcmaster university, elizabeth marquis, mcmaster university, rafaella shammas, mcmaster university, kelly swaim, elon university.
How to Cite
- Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS)
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal. Authors are permitted to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process - this applies to the submitted, accepted, and published versions of the manuscript. This can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (see The Effect of Open Access ).
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Capstone Project Literature Review Sample
The project of Capstone is an independent system of reporting. The structure of the sessions is feedback based assigned by the in structure. The capstone work is an independent bridge that enables the students to learn about the specific projects. The real benefits are linked to the model and the literature review project considers different structural elements. The design course of capstone considers classroom learning activities and the project assessment instruments are provided by capstone (Academic guides. waldenu. edu, 2018).
The ideal location for the assessment and structures is the professional skills of students and teamwork. The complete analysis of structured classroom projects and independent group project by capstone is considered in the present work. The literature review of capstone projects assists to determine the bridging gap between the structured classroom projects and an independent group project. Both types of projects are professional work that gets supports from the capstone. The gap between the structured classroom projects and independent group projects can be identified by proper literature survey (Academic guides. waldenu. edu, 2018).
The literature review helped our group in identifying the research gap because problems were addressed in a complex format. The consultation of experts and previous work enabled us to find the meaningful information about the work. The identified gaps were filled with the interesting aspects as mentioned in previous research work. The closing gap was identified for the feasibility and the unexplored research areas by capstone. Our project was in a crucial stage because research questions about the structured classroom project were not answered appropriately. The literature review framed the questions and identified the gap between the stages (Davis, Trevisan, Gerlick, & Brackin, 2010).
According to the literature review, there are three general categories of capstone including project, courses, and exhibition. The present project was to identify the gap between structured classroom projects and independent group projects. The literature review suggested to compile up the programs of capstone done by both categories and then analyze. The literature review about the project served as the complete ground work. The research included a thoughtful understanding of the potentials for the capstone projects (Davis, Beyerlein, Harrison, Thompson, & Trevisan, 2007).
The collected articles about the project served complete visibility on the difference between both disciplines structured classroom projects and independent group projects. The literature review defined a complete understanding for the relevancy of work. In the capstone project, the courses mean the assisting learning of classroom. The literature review demonstrates the team member’s expertise and the knowledge in the field of the current state. The gap between the structured classroom projects and independent group projects is addressed by literature that illustrates the contribution of the program. The synthesis provided concepts, trends, and issues to maintain the proceeding gap (Finocchiaro, 2017)
In the previous literature, the outline was provided for the effective understanding of gap in the projects. The overlap of both projects generates various formats so the literature review enabled the team to identify the other factors. The requirement of capstone projects includes analysis of previous projects and research papers. The other sources of guidance were mentor, advisors, self-reflection, and presentation of work. The recommendations of previous work emphasized the importance of preparation of real world work (funginstitute.berkeley.edu, 2018). The content suggests effective applications of the project. The difference between a structured class project and independent group project is significant. In the structured class project students are engaged in active participation in the learning process. The independent group project promotes the complete development of problem solving and higher order thinking. The bridge theory is practiced by community members and penal evaluates such kind of projects. In the effective capstone project, the emphasis is on the connections between all the disciplines (Nisdtx.org, 2013).
The independent group project was beneficial to the individuals due to distributing components of the projects. The communication between the team members decreases, on the other hand, the competition between the group members increases for class structured group members. The competition between the members distracts the goals of the project but the quality of the project exceeds for the structured class group (Davis, et al., 2009). In the previous research, the factors were “what are outcomes that students learned from the approach?”.
The reflection from the previous research showed insightful ideas for the improvement and independent learning of students. The argument of cooperative teams is based on the final project review and struggles made by them for the analysis. The literature review provides a great opportunity to communicate the issue and problems faced by the team members. The project management challenges are addressed by the distributed project environment and exposed that independent student projects were less effective as compared to the class structured programs (Harding, 2007).
The guidance of skilled and experts facilitated us for the appropriate technical support for the identification of research gaps. The faculty provided quick solutions to reduce the closing gap and identifying the difficulties. The support of faculty assured out the team to complete the task within the limited period. The services of the faculty are less compared to the other solutions and options because the faculty keeps in mind the issues and nominal process (Davis, Trevisan, Gerlick, & Brackin, 2010). The discussion with the faculty of our department was really worth worthy. Our interview was conducted by the faculty via an online skype program and this interview lasted approximately one to two hours. The total of five faculty members was included in the interview and guidance panel from our department. In most of the cases, they were helping the student on their own behalf by considering the problems and co-taught courses in the university (Davis, Beyerlein, Harrison, Thompson, & Trevisan, 2007).
The focus of the discussion was to identify the gap between structured classroom project and an independent group project. The other modules of the interview were selected by the faculty head and these modules were team member citizenship, professional responsibility formation, team contract, professional development planning and citizenship of the team member (Davis, Trevisan, Gerlick, & Brackin, 2010). Two distinct modules were completed by the faculty. The primary results of the discussion showed the complete association of our team assessment and perspective of faculty members. All the instructors indicated values and modules for the project work of capstone. The assessment aligns with the interrelated modules was the outcome of this activity (Davis, Trevisan, Gerlick, & Brackin, 2010).
The faculty members were agreed with the suitable consistency of capstone project outcomes. Initially, our team was expecting that faculty will arrange a project advisor to help us in finding final project deliverables. The collaboration of project advisor with the team members improves the product prototype, conceptual design, algorithm, and concept proof. Our capstone team was consisting of 6 students and the size of the team was selected by the faculty for the optimization of a dynamic team. The team was provided with the opportunity to develop more effectively by using teaming skills. The emphasis of teaming was on the tools used for the effective management and to review the process used in the facilitated session (Davis, et al., 2009).
The team worked as a cooperative team for the final approach assessment. The capstone team works efficiently and together as an independent team. The potential issues were addressed by teachers and faculty heads. The cooperative team approach was to complete the assessment in minimum time and according to the requirements. The responsibilities split down in two components, one was the identification of projects produced by the independent group project and other was structured classroom project (Davis, Beyerlein, Harrison, Thompson, & Trevisan, 2007).
The analysis of the project defined the gap between the structured classroom project and independent group projects. According to the faculty perspective, the capstone course provides rewards and challenges (Davis, Beyerlein, Harrison, Thompson, & Trevisan, 2007). The gap was produced due to dynamic group management and detracting of the project. The gap comes when classes suffered from the typical problem because of unproductive group members (Davis, Trevisan, Gerlick, & Brackin, 2010).
In the present work, the action plan did not work efficiently because of the issues faced during the capstone project. The assessment was to find the bridging gap between the independent group projects and structured classroom project. The action plan was often used in the modified version for the development of a capstone project. The use of an action plan is to define the project development and stages of the project. The action plan reduces the time taken in the process but provides an independent way to measure the efficiency. The independent team approach is to gather all the information about the process (Davis, Trevisan, Gerlick, & Brackin, 2010).
The cooperative team is similar to the structured classroom project and the responsibilities are for the approaching split. The action plan improves the motivation of research project that fits the structured problem of a capstone project. The use of an action plan was not supported in the present research because due to some issues the proper work was not done as acceding to mention in the action plan. In the next project of capstone, it is obvious that our team will work according to the action plan. The use of action plan enables to estimate the time required in the project (Academic guides. waldenu. edu, 2018).
- Academic guides. waldenu. edu. (2018). Library Guide to Capstone Literature Reviews: Role of the Literature Review . Retrieved from academicguides.waldenu.edu: https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/library/doctoral/literaturereview#s-lg-box-7300275
- Davis, D. D., Trevisan, M., Gerlick, R., & Brackin, P. (2010). Assessing Team Member Citizenship in Capstone Engineering Design Courses. International Journal of Engineering Education, 26 (04), 771-783.
- Davis, D., Beyerlein, S., Harrison, O., Thompson, P., & Trevisan, M. (2007). Assessments for Three Performance Areas in Capstone Engineering Design. American Society for Engineering Education, 293 (01), 1-12.
- Davis, D., Beyerlein, S., Thompson, P., McCormack, J., Harrison, O., Trevisan, M., . . . Howe, S. (2009). Assessing Design and Reflective Practice in Capstone Engineering Design courses. American Society for Engineering Education, 237 (01), 1-14.
- Finocchiaro, J. (2017). How the idea of capstone projects could be applied to assist classroom learning. Professional development program, 01 (01), 1-17.
- berkeley.edu. (2018). Project Format . Retrieved from funginstitute.berkeley.edu: https://funginstitute.berkeley.edu/programs-centers/full-time-program/capstone-experience/project-format/
- Harding, T. (2007). BENEFITS AND STRUGGLES OF USING LARGE TEAM PROJECTS IN CAPSTONE COURSES. American Society for Engineering Education, 304 (01), 12-20.
- org. (2013, 08). Best Practices in Capstone projects . Retrieved from www.nisdtx.org: https://www.nisdtx.org/UserFiles/Servers/Server_232117/File/Departments/Research/District%20Research%20Projects/BestPracticesinCapstoneProjects_NorthwestIndependentSchoolDistrict.pdf
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A practical example of writing literature review, introduction.
The tutorial offers are step by step guide to structure and format the literature review. The guide starts with provision of a sample research framework and based on the conceptual framework a structure for the literature review is identified. This is followed by a detailed guideline on what to include in the literature review. A number of other important issues with regards to literature review are also discussed, that include Searching the Relevant Literature, Searching for the Theory, Downloading and Storing the Literature, and much more.
Structure of the Literature
A literature review has following two sections
Individual Discussion the Variables
Theoretical Framework and Hypotheses Development
Based on the proposed framework for the study, following structure is proposed
Following sub-sections are proposed when discussing the variables Individually
- Servant Leadership
- Career Commitment
- Empowerment at Work
- Life Satisfaction
When presenting literature on the relationship between variables, following structures may be utilized.
Theoretical Framework and Hypotheses Development (Structure 1)
- Servant Leadership and Life Satisfaction
- Mediating Role of Career Commitment
- Mediating Role of Empowerment at Work
Theoretical Framework and Hypotheses Development (Structure 2)
- Servant Leadership and Career Commitment
- Career Commitment and Life Satisfaction
- Servant Leadership and Empowerment at Work
- Empowerment at Work and Life Satisfaction
Independent/ Individual Discussion on Variables
The literature review shall start with the discussion on the variables individually. For instance if you are assessing the impact of Leadership on Project Success. First you should separately discuss both Leadership and Project Success. Following shall make be part of your review when discussing the variables individually.
- The concept of the variable
Is there any conceptualization of the variable in the area of your study (for Instance Higher Education)
How the definitions evolved, changed over time
- What are the key facets/traits/characteristics that emerge from the definitions?
- What conceptualization/operational definition are you using in your study? Does conceptualization reflect in instrument/measurement. Why use a conceptualization, is it very close to your area of study?
- What do these definitions agree on?
What does the variable do for the organizations – How it facilitates their working (Discuss in general and also in particular to your industry scope)
- Why studying the concept is important in your field of study? Discuss the general consequences (If it’s a predictor variable) – If it is a criterion, why studying the antecedents is important in your field of study.
Status of literature on the variable in the field of study (Is it limited. What are its limitations?)
The concept of the variable (Definitions)
The scholar shall start with the conceptualization of the variable. If you are writing a paper one or two definitions are enough. But if you are writing a thesis you may add more definition. But just adding the definitions is not enough. One shall also see how these definitions are related, do they have any thing in common, do they contradict each other.
If the study is focused on a particular area for example Higher Education, then it is recommended that the scholar shall provide the conceptualization of the variable in that particular area.
Although, one may not be able to put in the evolution of the concept in a research paper unless the paper is a review, this should be papert of the thesis as there is more word space in the thesis.
What are the key facets/traits/characteristics that emerge from the definitions
The scholars can also explain the key facets of the concept. This is particularly important if the scholar is writing a thesis. Or otherwise in case of paper the focus is on examination of individual dimensions of the concept.
What conceptualization/operational definition are you using in your study? Does conceptualization reflects in instrument/measurement. Why use a particular conceptualization, is it very close to your area of study?
Operationalization of the concept is critical to research papers. The scholar shall clearly identify the definition that is being used in the study. This also guides the measurement of the concept in the study.
Moving forward, it is important that the scholar shall clearly explain why it the concept important for the industry/organizations. The scholar shall discuss the important of the variable in general plus also why the concept could be important for the area under study.
Why studying the concept is important in your field of study?
If the scholar has chosen a particular field/area of study (for instance Higher Education), discuss the general consequences (If it’s a predictor variable) – If it is a criterion, why studying the antecedents is important in your field of study. Provide examples if possible
The scholar shall clearly elaborate the current status of the literature on the concept. This will help further highlight the need to study the concept.
How to Search for Theory
Use Google Scholar
- intitle:”Satisfaction” intitle:”Leadership” and intext:”Theory“
- intitle:”Servant Leadership” intext:”Path-Goal”
To Learn More on How to use Mendeley and Google Scholar for Literature Search, see the videos at the end of the tutorial.
How to write when developing framework to establish relationships.
After the individual discussion on the variables in the study, the next step is to develop a theoretical framework and establish the relationship between the variables in the study. To do so, following guidelines shall be followed when writing the literature review to build the relationship between the study variable.
Has previous studies linked the two concepts? If yes what were their findings
- Are the variables in any way linked to each other?
Were the findings of the previous studies unanimous? On the other hand, contradictory?
- Why studying the linkage between variables is significant/Important (In general) and in your area/field of study.
How the independent variable affects/influences/impacts the dependent variable
- Do the dimensions/traits of independent variable link to the dependent variable
- Use theory to develop linkages
- Your literature should not look like annotated bibliography, but rather a story where ideas/concepts are linked
- Try using latest references wherever possible in particular when highlighting the importance of the concept/its value/its benefits.
When developing a relationship between the two variables, the first this a scholar shall do is identify if there has been any previous research linking the two variables. if there is, what were the results. However, there may be times when one is linking two concepts that have not been studied before, in this case one way is to identify the a theory that can help explain the relationship between two variables. To see how it is done, kindly refer to the end of this section, Use theory to develop the linkage
It is important that the scholar(s) review the existing research in great depth to identify if in previous research there are any contradictory findings. Any contradictions in existing research shall also be reported.
Why studying the linkage between variables is significant/Important (In general) and in your area/field of study
The scholar(s) shall clearly elaborate on the importance and need for the study, this should be done both in general and if there is a specific field or focus (like education or banks), then the relationship and its importance shall be discussed in the study setting.
The literature review shall clearly elaborate on how the independent variables affects the dependent variable. This can be done by explaining what leads to variance in the dependent variable because of the independent variable.
Using Theory to develop the linkage
Last but very important, the theory that you have mentioned in the introduction of your study that would help explain the underlying mechanism shall be utilized to develop the linkage between the variables.
Download and Store the Literature
In order to learn How to Download and Store the literature please see the following tutorials
To Read and Store
To Search for Literature
The Tutorial is Discussed in Detail with Examples in the following Video
Additional literature review resources.
- From Literature to Research Problem, Objectives and Questions
- How to Avoid Plagiarism?
- How to Develop relationship between variables using a theory?
- How to Read a Research Paper and Store Critical Information
- How to Use Google Scholar for Literature Review
- How to Use QDA Miner Lite for Searching Literature
- How to Use Scholarcy and Google Tall to Books to Extract Literature
- How to Write the Literature Review
- Theoretical vs Conceptual Framework – Different, Similar, or Complimentary
- Using Mendeley for Literature Search
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Importance of Literature Review for Research
Any serious research should have a reliable and broad base. The first component of this base is the literature that scientists study to understand the topic. The second component is a research question, which determines the direction and details of the research (Laureate Education Producer, 2013). In my opinion, the first step in any study should be to find the literature on the topic. This will allow scientists to find out what works already exist and what has not yet been described. In addition, it will be useful to compose a research question based on other verified questions.
In the particular case of inadequate sex education at school, it is necessary to study works and manuals on birth control. Research on teen psychology and pregnancy statistics are also helpful. This will allow the researcher to form an opinion about the state of the problem and understand in which direction to move (Plummer, Makris, & Brocken, 2014b). Some of the best practices can be used in a new work, and other topics may not have been touched upon by scientists yet. After studying this data, it will be possible to formulate a research question fully covering the desired subject.
Developing a research question without first studying the literature can harm the research results. First, the scientist runs the risk of researching a topic that someone else has researched in the same way (Yegidis, Weinbach, & Myers, 2018). Second, this question will not be based on sufficient methodological information, which will make it unscientific. Third, without studying the literature, the researcher will not know the various details of the research topic. Thus, gathering information before starting work on any subject is a critical step in work. This allows researchers to collect reliable and useful data necessary for a high-quality study of the topic (Plummer, Makris, & Brocken, 2014a). This is the only way to create precious research that reveals the right topic.
Laureate Education Producer. (2013). Logan family (Episode 1) [Video file]. In Sessions. Web.
Plummer, S. B., Makris, S., & Brocksen S. M. (Eds.). (2014). Social work case studies: Foundation year. Laureate International Universities Publishing.
Plummer, S. B., Makris, S., & Brocksen S. (Eds.). (2014). Sessions: Case histories. Laureate International Universities Publishing.
Yegidis, B. L., Weinbach, R. W., & Myers, L. L. (2018). Research methods for social workers (8th ed.). Pearson.
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