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APA Formatting and Citation (7th Ed.) | Generator, Template, Examples
Published on November 6, 2020 by Raimo Streefkerk . Revised on August 23, 2022.
The 7th edition of the APA Publication Manual provides guidelines for clear communication , citing sources , and formatting documents. This article focuses on paper formatting.
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Throughout your paper, you need to apply the following APA format guidelines:
- Set page margins to 1 inch on all sides.
- Double-space all text, including headings.
- Indent the first line of every paragraph 0.5 inches.
- Use an accessible font (e.g., Times New Roman 12pt., Arial 11pt., or Georgia 11pt.).
- Include a page number on every page.
Let an expert format your paper
Our APA formatting experts can help you to format your paper according to APA guidelines. They can help you with:
- Margins, line spacing, and indentation
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Table of contents
How to set up apa format (with template), apa alphabetization guidelines, apa format template [free download], page header, headings and subheadings, reference page, tables and figures, frequently asked questions about apa format.
References are ordered alphabetically by the first author’s last name. If the author is unknown, order the reference entry by the first meaningful word of the title (ignoring articles: “the”, “a”, or “an”).
Why set up APA format from scratch if you can download Scribbr’s template for free?
Student papers and professional papers have slightly different guidelines regarding the title page, abstract, and running head. Our template is available in Word and Google Docs format for both versions.
- Student paper: Word | Google Docs
- Professional paper: Word | Google Docs
In an APA Style paper, every page has a page header. For student papers, the page header usually consists of just a page number in the page’s top-right corner. For professional papers intended for publication, it also includes a running head .
A running head is simply the paper’s title in all capital letters. It is left-aligned and can be up to 50 characters in length. Longer titles are abbreviated .
APA headings have five possible levels. Heading level 1 is used for main sections such as “ Methods ” or “ Results ”. Heading levels 2 to 5 are used for subheadings. Each heading level is formatted differently.
Want to know how many heading levels you should use, when to use which heading level, and how to set up heading styles in Word or Google Docs? Then check out our in-depth article on APA headings .
The title page is the first page of an APA Style paper. There are different guidelines for student and professional papers.
Both versions include the paper title and author’s name and affiliation. The student version includes the course number and name, instructor name, and due date of the assignment. The professional version includes an author note and running head .
For more information on writing a striking title, crediting multiple authors (with different affiliations), and writing the author note, check out our in-depth article on the APA title page .
The abstract is a 150–250 word summary of your paper. An abstract is usually required in professional papers, but it’s rare to include one in student papers (except for longer texts like theses and dissertations).
The abstract is placed on a separate page after the title page . At the top of the page, write the section label “Abstract” (bold and centered). The contents of the abstract appear directly under the label. Unlike regular paragraphs, the first line is not indented. Abstracts are usually written as a single paragraph without headings or blank lines.
Directly below the abstract, you may list three to five relevant keywords . On a new line, write the label “Keywords:” (italicized and indented), followed by the keywords in lowercase letters, separated by commas.
APA Style does not provide guidelines for formatting the table of contents . It’s also not a required paper element in either professional or student papers. If your instructor wants you to include a table of contents, it’s best to follow the general guidelines.
Place the table of contents on a separate page between the abstract and introduction. Write the section label “Contents” at the top (bold and centered), press “Enter” once, and list the important headings with corresponding page numbers.
The APA reference page is placed after the main body of your paper but before any appendices . Here you list all sources that you’ve cited in your paper (through APA in-text citations ). APA provides guidelines for formatting the references as well as the page itself.
Creating APA Style references
Play around with the Scribbr Citation Example Generator below to learn about the APA reference format of the most common source types or generate APA citations for free with Scribbr’s APA Citation Generator .
Formatting the reference page
Write the section label “References” at the top of a new page (bold and centered). Place the reference entries directly under the label in alphabetical order.
Finally, apply a hanging indent , meaning the first line of each reference is left-aligned, and all subsequent lines are indented 0.5 inches.
Tables and figures are presented in a similar format. They’re preceded by a number and title and followed by explanatory notes (if necessary).
Use bold styling for the word “Table” or “Figure” and the number, and place the title on a separate line directly below it (in italics and title case). Try to keep tables clean; don’t use any vertical lines, use as few horizontal lines as possible, and keep row and column labels concise.
Keep the design of figures as simple as possible. Include labels and a legend if needed, and only use color when necessary (not to make it look more appealing).
Check out our in-depth article about table and figure notes to learn when to use notes and how to format them.
The easiest way to set up APA format in Word is to download Scribbr’s free APA format template for student papers or professional papers.
Alternatively, you can watch Scribbr’s 5-minute step-by-step tutorial or check out our APA format guide with examples.
APA Style papers should be written in a font that is legible and widely accessible. For example:
- Times New Roman (12pt.)
- Arial (11pt.)
- Calibri (11pt.)
- Georgia (11pt.)
The same font and font size is used throughout the document, including the running head , page numbers, headings , and the reference page . Text in footnotes and figure images may be smaller and use single line spacing.
You need an APA in-text citation and reference entry . Each source type has its own format; for example, a webpage citation is different from a book citation .
Use Scribbr’s free APA Citation Generator to generate flawless citations in seconds or take a look at our APA citation examples .
Yes, page numbers are included on all pages, including the title page , table of contents , and reference page . Page numbers should be right-aligned in the page header.
To insert page numbers in Microsoft Word or Google Docs, click ‘Insert’ and then ‘Page number’.
APA format is widely used by professionals, researchers, and students in the social and behavioral sciences, including fields like education, psychology, and business.
Be sure to check the guidelines of your university or the journal you want to be published in to double-check which style you should be using.
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Streefkerk, R. (2022, August 23). APA Formatting and Citation (7th Ed.) | Generator, Template, Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved June 9, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/apa-style/format/
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How to Write a Literature Review in APA
A literature review is a written survey of what researchers have said about a particular group of related concepts. Literature reviews introduce the reader to the current state of understanding on a topic and highlight gaps in knowledge that need to be addressed. They may group or categorize studies as well as provide an evaluation or synthesis of those studies.
Literature reviews should be written in present tense and past tense and generally follow the order of introduction to the research question, review of the literature, and analysis or synthesis of results.
Literature reviews are common assignments in undergraduate and graduate courses, especially in the social sciences. Knowing how to write one is an important skill that students should master during their first year of school.
This guide will teach you how to write a literature review in APA style, including examples and suggestions for success.
When writing a literature review, the following steps are key to creating a compelling piece of writing:
- Research for relevant literature
When researching for this assignment, students should focus on a scholarly research paper, academic journals, and professional magazines rather than newspaper and magazine articles. These should be used sparingly and only to support arguments or prove a point that is not covered by other works. When searching for articles, make sure you include those from peer-reviewed publications as well as those from the target journal’s archives.
- Evaluate the sources
Once you’ve found your sources, it’s important to critically evaluate each one before including it in the paper. This means scanning the information and making sure that key elements are included.
When assessing a source, ask yourself questions like:
- Are the methods described clearly enough for me to understand them?
- Does this article provide enough foundational background information for me to understand the context of the study?
- Is the literature reviewed relevant to my research question?
If you can’t answer yes to these questions, it’s probably not a good idea to include this source in your paper.
- Identify debates and gaps in the literature.
Evaluating your sources and choosing those that are relevant to your topic can be difficult. One way to make this process easier is to identify gaps in the research as well as debates that include contrasting views on a subject. When doing so, focus on how current studies contribute or attempt to contribute to these gaps and debates.
- Create an outline for the review
Once you have a list of articles, it’s time to start planning out your paper. The easiest way to do this is to make an outline that includes the key points that should be included in each section of the paper. This helps ensure that your literature review has all necessary components while also helping you create an introduction and conclusion for the entire piece.
- Write the literature review.
The final step of the process is writing the actual literature review itself. Start by writing an introductory paragraph that includes a thesis, your research question, and key points about your paper.
APA Formatting Guidelines for a Literature Review Paper
APA (7th edition) style is the most commonly used citation and formatting system. This guide will outline how to format a paper in APA style, along with examples for each component.
General APA formatting rules include:
1) On all sides of the page, use 1-inch margins (top, bottom, left, and right).
2) Use a comprehensible font. Many fonts are appropriate, including Calibri 11-point, Arial 11-point, Times New Roman 12-point, and Georgia 11 point. The word-processing program’s default font is still ok.
3) Double-spacing is recommended for the entire paper, even for the block quotations and the reference list. Blank lines should not be added before or after headings. There should be no additional space between paragraphs.
4) Text paragraphs should be aligned to the left margin and indented. Allow for a ragged right margin. Use partial justification rather than complete justification. Using the tab key or your word-processing program’s paragraph-formatting feature, indent the first line of each paragraph of text by 0.5 inches.
5) Place a page number in the upper right corner of each page, including the cover page or title page, which is page 1. On any page of a student paper, there is no need for a running head.
Structure of a Literature Review Paper
Just like other papers, a literature review should start with an introduction. This section should include a thesis statement, the research question(s) being addressed, and key points about your paper. This is typically done in one paragraph.
Make sure that the thesis statement includes your argument, which you will develop more fully in the body of the paper. The thesis should help orient readers to what they can expect from the literature review, especially relative to your research question(s) and its context within existing scholarship about your topic.
An introduction should be interesting and grab the reader’s attention. You might include an anecdote or refer directly to an interesting passage from one of the articles you discuss in your paper.
The body section
The body should be divided into subsections, each of which covers a distinct aspect of your research question(s). Each section should begin with an introductory sentence that summarizes the main point you are addressing. As you develop these subheadings, make sure they reflect the purpose of your paper. For example, let’s say you are writing a paper about a certain type of superstition. The sections may be labeled as follows:
- History and prevalence
- Cause of the superstition
- Effects of the superstition
The final sentence of each subsection should include a transition sentence that signals to your reader that you are moving on to another aspect related to your research question(s).
The job of the body section is to present, evaluate and analyze your research results. The section should be well-written and organized, and formal.
The conclusion should begin with a short paragraph restating the thesis statement. The conclusion can also contain some theoretical implications of your research, limitations of your paper, and ideas for future research in the area. It should be one to three paragraphs long, depending on what you are writing about.
It is important that you write an engaging literature review that is not too brief or too long, uses proper English, and is free of grammatical errors. Use the correct APA format for literature review papers.
Organizing the Body of a Literature Review
There are different approaches to organizing a literature review, which includes the following:
This type of approach in structuring a literature review involves looking at the development of a particular concept or idea from the earliest to most recent times. It involves organizing the content according to date.
In this case, you should write about the first known occurrence of what you are writing about to its latest form.
For example, if you are writing about superstition, you can begin with its earliest known roots in prehistoric societies and the practices of various cultures.
According to this method, each new section should cover a distinct era.
This approach to structuring a literature review requires you to look at the content in terms of specific themes, key concepts, topics, or ideas.
Accordingly, it is best to divide your paper into distinct thematic categories, with each section addressing one topic, which you organize chronologically.
For each theme or topic, include a brief description of what it entails and provide examples where necessary. Make sure you give detailed explanations and avoid broad generalities, which often lead to misunderstandings.
Organizing the literature review by topic, theme, or idea is best suited for a paper that addresses an interdisciplinary research question. This type of organization gives you the liberty to discuss, draw connections, compare, and differentiate theories and views on your topic in separate sections.
A thematic approach is most appropriate when you intend to use your literature review papers to argue key findings on your topic.
A thematic approach is most appropriate when you intend to use your literature review papers to argue for a certain standpoint on your topic.
This structuring of a literature review involves dividing the content into sections that address distinct methodological approaches used in researching the particular topic.
This approach is particularly effective if you address a complex research question requiring you to discuss different types of research design and methods used in studying the area.
For example, if your literature review focuses on various ways of measuring job satisfaction, your methodology section can address:
- Quantitative studies on job satisfaction
- Qualitative studies on job satisfaction
- Combined quantitative and qualitative approaches in studying job satisfaction
This approach is particularly useful when there are many distinct ways of conducting research. It allows you to address each method separately in different sections of your paper, making it easier for the reader to follow the argument being put forward.
Citation and References of a Literature Review in APA Format
In a paper, you have to include all the references used in your work. Citing references gives credit and accountability to authors who helped you with their research work. To maintain uniformity of style, a specific format must be followed when writing citations for APA papers, including those written for literature review.
For a literature review, whenever a reference is mentioned, it should be cited in parentheses. The parenthetical citation includes the author’s last name and the year of publication.
For example: (Blaikie, 2000)
The references at the end of your paper should be organized alphabetically by the first author’s last name. At the end of each reference, there must be a full citation formatted according to APA style guidelines. For example:
Blaikie, N. (2000). Human geographies of the Global South: Development, nature and social transformation. London, UK: Longman Press.
Tips for Writing an Excellent Literature Review Paper
- Be specific and clear.
Clarity of expression is one of the most important aspects of good academic writing. When making conclusions in your literature review, make sure that your argument is based on solid reasoning and evidence.
Based on the specific question asked for this paper, establish what exactly needs to be included in the paper. You need to choose the areas that require in-depth analysis.
- Give good examples
When making your point, you must provide relevant examples so that the reader can easily understand what you mean. As you are providing examples, try to use appropriate cases or, if possible international case studies.
- Use formal language
A literature review is a formal document. For the reader to trust what you have written, it is important to use appropriate language and structure of writing. Avoid slang and words that are not commonly used for academic writing.
- Do not include any reference that does not support your argument.
Be careful when you include information from internet sources. You should avoid using unreliable citations or references that have no backing evidence. If you are not sure about the credibility of a source, it is better to avoid including it.
- Avoid plagiarism
As an academic writing assignment, it is important to avoid plagiarism. When you are paraphrasing or summarizing a source , use quotation marks and citation as appropriate.
- Include a reference list at the end of your paper.
At the end of your paper, include a comprehensive list of all references used in your paper. The reference must be cited within the text and listed alphabetically at the end according to APA style guidelines.
Following these tips will help you write an effective literature review. If you are still having trouble or need more advice on how to complete an individual assignment, please feel free to contact us, and we will be happy to help.
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A Literature review is an in-depth analysis of published academic literature on a particular topic. It provides the current state of knowledge about a research question and helps understand how future research can meet aims.
The purpose of a literature review will vary between disciplines, and the work done in your field is likely to influence the structure and tone.
If you need help with the writing process of a literature review in APA style, please contact us today. We can help you finish your assignment successfully and according to the required standards. Our rates are reasonable, and we guarantee satisfaction.
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Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts
In-Text Citations: The Basics
Welcome to the Purdue OWL
This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.
Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.
Note: This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style can be found here .
Reference citations in text are covered on pages 261-268 of the Publication Manual. What follows are some general guidelines for referring to the works of others in your essay.
Note: On pages 117-118, the Publication Manual suggests that authors of research papers should use the past tense or present perfect tense for signal phrases that occur in the literature review and procedure descriptions (for example, Jones (1998) found or Jones (1998) has found ...). Contexts other than traditionally-structured research writing may permit the simple present tense (for example, Jones (1998) finds ).
APA Citation Basics
When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, like, for example, (Jones, 1998). One complete reference for each source should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.
If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your in-text reference.
On the other hand, if you are directly quoting or borrowing from another work, you should include the page number at the end of the parenthetical citation. Use the abbreviation “p.” (for one page) or “pp.” (for multiple pages) before listing the page number(s). Use an en dash for page ranges. For example, you might write (Jones, 1998, p. 199) or (Jones, 1998, pp. 199–201). This information is reiterated below.
Regardless of how they are referenced, all sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.
In-text citation capitalization, quotes, and italics/underlining
- Always capitalize proper nouns, including author names and initials: D. Jones.
- If you refer to the title of a source within your paper, capitalize all words that are four letters long or greater within the title of a source: Permanence and Change . Exceptions apply to short words that are verbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs: Writing New Media , There Is Nothing Left to Lose .
( Note: in your References list, only the first word of a title will be capitalized: Writing new media .)
- When capitalizing titles, capitalize both words in a hyphenated compound word: Natural-Born Cyborgs .
- Capitalize the first word after a dash or colon: "Defining Film Rhetoric: The Case of Hitchcock's Vertigo ."
- If the title of the work is italicized in your reference list, italicize it and use title case capitalization in the text: The Closing of the American Mind ; The Wizard of Oz ; Friends .
- If the title of the work is not italicized in your reference list, use double quotation marks and title case capitalization (even though the reference list uses sentence case): "Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds;" "The One Where Chandler Can't Cry."
If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and page number for the reference (preceded by "p." for a single page and “pp.” for a span of multiple pages, with the page numbers separated by an en dash).
You can introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.
If you do not include the author’s name in the text of the sentence, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation.
Place direct quotations that are 40 words or longer in a free-standing block of typewritten lines and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout, but do not add an extra blank line before or after it. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.
Because block quotation formatting is difficult for us to replicate in the OWL's content management system, we have simply provided a screenshot of a generic example below.
Formatting example for block quotations in APA 7 style.
Quotations from sources without pages
Direct quotations from sources that do not contain pages should not reference a page number. Instead, you may reference another logical identifying element: a paragraph, a chapter number, a section number, a table number, or something else. Older works (like religious texts) can also incorporate special location identifiers like verse numbers. In short: pick a substitute for page numbers that makes sense for your source.
Summary or paraphrase
If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference and may omit the page numbers. APA guidelines, however, do encourage including a page range for a summary or paraphrase when it will help the reader find the information in a longer work.
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How to Write a Literature Review in APA Format
To complete a literature review, you must decide on your topic, research academic databases, organize your findings and write your review. The American Psychological Association provides specific guidelines for writing your review, from overall organization to minute details in formatting. Once you have organized and analyzed your findings, use APA style to write your review.
Format Your Document
Before you begin writing, ensure that your document is formatted properly. Set your page margins to 1 inch and double your spacing unless otherwise specified. Your font should be 12 point Times New Roman. Your header will contain a running heading and the page number on every page, including the title page. The page number should always be at the top right corner.
The title page will first introduce the running heading with the tag: "Running Heading: AND THE HEADING IN ALL CAPS." The title page should contain the title, the author, your name and your institution, all doubled-spaced and centered in the middle of the page.
Organize Your Sections
The essential sections for a literature review are the:
- body -- organized by main points
An abstract may be included, though it is not required. In your introduction , include a summary of the focus of your review and why it is important. For example, if you are reviewing studies about student motivation, explain that it is important for teachers and parents to be aware of what motivates students to learn, and include if there has been little or a lot of research on the subject.
Organize your body using your main points , with bold, centered headings. For example, after you have researched different studies examining student motivation, organize the body of your review based on motivating factors. In the section about parental approval, discuss studies that measured the effects parental approval had on student motivation. Your final section will be references.
Cite Your Sources
APA style includes specific, detailed instructions for in-text citations . Each time you refer to a study by restating information or findings, include a citation in parentheses. The general format is to list the last name of the author, followed by a comma and the publication year, all enclosed in parentheses. For example:
Fear of failing has been found to motivate some students (Jones, 2010).
If there are two or more authors , list the last names, separated by commas. Include the "&" symbol before the last name. For example, some students reported being afraid of failure (Jones, Smith, & Williams, 2010). If you cite the author in the reference, include only the year. For example: Jones found that some students are motivated by fear of failing (2010). If you are citing multiple studies, list them alphabetically by the first listed author.
Include Your References
Your references should begin on a new piece of paper with a bold, centered heading: References. Organize your studies alphabetically by the last name of the first author. A study by A. Brown and T. Roberts would come before a study by R. Clark and M. Adams, because Brown is alphabetically before Clark. All references are only single-spaced after periods.
The general format is the same for scholarly journals. List the last name, comma and first initial of every author. Put the date the article was published in parentheses. Write the title of the article with only the first word capitalized, followed by a period. Write the publication name in italics, followed by volume number if applicable. Finally, list the page numbers, for example:
Brown, A., & Roberts, T. (2010). Effects of fear of failure on student success in the classroom. Journal of Research, 23, 34-48.
The difference for books is that the title of the book is italicized, and location of the publisher is listed, for example:
Clark, R., & Adams, M.N. (2011). Why children succeed in the classroom. New York: Education Press.
- Purdue University Online Writing Lab: Types of APA Papers: Literature Review
- University of Nebraska at Lincoln: Ordering the Sections of an APA Literature Review
Hannah Richardson has a Master's degree in Special Education from Vanderbilt University and a Bacheor of Arts in English. She has been a writer since 2004 and wrote regularly for the sports and features sections of "The Technician" newspaper, as well as "Coastwach" magazine. Richardson also served as the co-editor-in-chief of "Windhover," an award-winning literary and arts magazine. She is currently teaching at a middle school.
Cite your source automatically in MLA or APA format Cite Using citation machines responsibly Powered by A literature review can be a part of a research paper or scholarly article, usually falling after the introduction and before the research methods sections.
Literature Review via APA Style.org "a narrative summary and evaluation of the findings or theories within a literature base. Also known as 'narrative literature review'. " Key takeaways from the Psi Chi webinar So You Need to Write a Literature Review via APA Style.org Examples of Literature Reviews
Literature Review: Conducting & Writing Sample Lit Reviews from Communication Arts Literature Review Sample 1 Literature Review Sample 2 Literature Review Sample 3 Have an exemplary literature review? Have you written a stellar literature review you care to share for teaching purposes?
These sample papers demonstrate APA Style formatting standards for different student paper types. Students may write the same types of papers as professional authors (e.g., quantitative studies, literature reviews) or other types of papers for course assignments (e.g., reaction or response papers, discussion posts), dissertations, and theses.
Author/Authors. Rules for handling works by a single author or multiple authors that apply to all APA-style references in your reference list, regardless of the type of work (book, article, electronic resource, etc.)
General Format In-Text Citations: The Basics In-Text Citations: Author/Authors Reference List: Basic Rules Reference List: Author/Authors Reference List: Articles in Periodicals Reference List: Books Reference List: Other Print Sources Reference List: Electronic Sources Reference List: Audiovisual Media Reference List: Other Non-Print Sources
Step 1 - Search for relevant literature Step 2 - Evaluate and select sources Step 3 - Identify themes, debates, and gaps Step 4 - Outline your literature review's structure Step 5 - Write your literature review Free lecture slides Other interesting articles Frequently asked questions Introduction Quick Run-through Step 1 & 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5
Home; Steps for Conducting a Lit Review; Finding "The Literature" Organizing/Writing; APA Style; Chicago (Author-Date) Toggle Dropdown Turabian ; MLA Style; Sample Literature Reviews
There are two common types of papers written in fields using APA Style: the literature review and the experimental report (also known as a "research report").
Literature review guidelines Developed by James O'Neill with assistance from Ronald Levant, Rod Watts, Andrew Smiler, Michael Addis, and Stephen Wester. General considerations A good review should summarize the state of knowledge on a well-defined topic in the psychology of men and masculinity in concise and clear ways.
APA Format - 6th Edition What is a Literature Review? Commonly referred to as a "Lit Review", a literature review is a critical, analytical summary and synthesis of the current knowledge of a topic. It should: Have a particular focus or theme to organize the review. Discuss the significant academic literature important for that focus.
the synthesizing and comparing of information in a literature review. Additionally, a literature review is also not an essay, report, or research paper, as it does not state, prove, or develop main points. A literature review does not answer a question, nor is it a list of summarized articles. What Is a Literature Review? A literature review is ...
The Scribbr Citation Generator will automatically create a flawless APA citation. Throughout your paper, you need to apply the following APA format guidelines: Set page margins to 1 inch on all sides. Double-space all text, including headings. Indent the first line of every paragraph 0.5 inches.
Body (section 2.11) Align the text to the left with a 1/2-inch left indent on the first line; Double-space; As long as there is no Abstract, at the top of the first page, type the title of the paper, centered, in bold, and in Sentence Case Capitalization; Usually, include sections like these: introduction, literature review or background, discussion, and conclusion -- but the specific ...
Literature reviews should be written in present tense and past tense and generally follow the order of introduction to the research question, review of the literature, and analysis or synthesis of results. Literature reviews are common assignments in undergraduate and graduate courses, especially in the social sciences.
Watch on Literature Reviews: An Overview Watch this tutorial from North Carolina State University (NCSU) to learn more on the literature review process. Preparing Your Literature Review Below are some resources to help you organize your approach to preparing a literature review. Guidelines for writing a literature review
Literature Reviews. The literature of a literature review is not made up of novels and short stories and poetry—but is the collection of writing and research that has been produced on a particular topic. The purpose of the literature review is to give you an overview of a particular topic. Your job is to discover the research that has been ...
In APA Format 6 Min read Do you need to know how to write a literature review abstract in APA? You've come to the right place. This citation example focuses on abstract writing in an APA format style paper.
Organizing Your Literature Review. An APA style paper is organized in the author-date style. This means you cite the author's name and year of publication within the text with an in-text citation. You also include the page number, if appropriate. You then include the full information of that source in a reference list at the end of your paper.
For example, if the review topic was arts-based research, your review may focus on different ways artistic inquiry was used to understand the creative process, focusing then on the concepts rather than the development. Methodological: The method or practice applied in a case study can be the basis for organizing a literature review. This ...
The realm of academia thrives on knowledge expansion, and a crucial element in this quest is the literature review. Whether it be delving into an extensive body of research, analyzing a book or article, or comprehending a research paper format, the literature review serves as a cornerstone for scholarly pursuits. In this article, we explore the intricacies of an APA literature review ...
When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, like, for example, (Jones, 1998). One complete reference for each source should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.
The general format is to list the last name of the author, followed by a comma and the publication year, all enclosed in parentheses. For example: Fear of failing has been found to motivate some students (Jones, 2010). If there are two or more authors, list the last names, separated by commas. Include the "&" symbol before the last name.
While APA doesn't itself provide an example of how to format a literature review, it does provide some guidance in its Publication Manual * about the content of a lit review:. Literature Reviews: provide summaries and evaluations of findings/theories in the research literature of a particular discipline or field;
Background. Low dose naltrexone (LDN) is used off-label by many individuals with fibromyalgia to help manage their pain. There is no current systematic literature review summarising the evidence to support this use of LDN. The objectives of this study were to evaluate if patients with fibromyalgia prescribed LDN have reduced pain scores and greater quality of life compared with those allocated ...