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APA citation basics
Apa in-text citations, apa reference list.
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The ultimate guide to citing in APA
APA is one of the most popular citation styles, widely used in the social and behavioral sciences, but also in many other fields. APA stands for American Psychological Association . APA citation style was developed by social and behavioral scientists to standardize scientific writing and is currently in its 7th edition.
If you are not sure which citation style to use in your paper, ask your instructor. There are many different citation styles and using the style your instructor or institution has established correctly can have a positive impact on your grade.
The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th edition) is the basis of this guide. It contains guidelines on paper structure and content, writing and formatting, and crediting sources in APA. This guide focuses on crediting sources and aims at answering all of your questions about citing in APA.
The APA citation rules stretch more than 50 pages in the official APA publication manual, and yes, they are complex. We have created the BibGuru citation builder to help you focus on the content of your work instead of worrying about how to get your reference list done correctly.
For general tips and tricks on writing your papers in APA, or to learn how to format your APA title page and abstract page , visit our blog . Or just use our free APA format citation generator to automatically create accurate APA citations with only a few clicks.
I want to cite a ...
The APA guide recommends that you cite any works or individuals whose ideas, theories, or research have directly influenced your work. This means that you should cite only works you have read and ideas you have incorporated into your writing. If possible cite primary sources, and secondary sources sparingly.
A primary source reports original content; a secondary source refers to content first reported in another source.
APA citation style uses in-text citations and a reference list. Both can be created with just a click with BibGuru's APA citation generator .
For in-text references, APA uses the author-date citation system. This system allows readers to find the sources cited both within the text and in the reference list, where each source is listed alphabetically. Each work cited in the text must appear in the reference list, and each work in the reference list must be cited in the text.
To insert a citation in the text, include the author's last name and year of publication. For a direct quotation , include the page number or specific location of the phrase or sentence in the original work.
In-text references have two formats: parenthetical and narrative . In parenthetical citations , the author's name and publication date appear in parentheses. When a parenthetical citation is at the end of a sentence, place the period or other end punctuation after the closing parentheses. Here is an example:
EXAMPLE Parenthetical citation
In the production process nowadays, skilled labor and computerized machines are used (Rode, 2012).
In narrative citations, the name and publication date is incorporated into the text as part of the sentence. The author appears in running text and the date appears in parentheses immediately after the author's name:
EXAMPLE Narrative citation (with parenthesis)
Rode (2012) claims that productive activities have been part of human civilization since ancient times.
In some cases, author and date might both appear in the narrative. In this case, no parentheses are needed:
EXAMPLE Narrative citation (without parenthesis)
In 2012, Rode wrote about the productive activities...
If you cite multiple works parenthetically, place the citations in alphabetical order, separating them with semicolons, like in this example:
EXAMPLE Multiple parenthetical citations
(Adams et al., 2019; Shumway & Shulman, 2015; Westinghouse, 2017)
If multiple sources are cited within a sentence, they can appear in any order:
EXAMPLE Multiple sources in a sentence
Suliman (2018), Gutiérrez (2012, 2017), and Medina and Reyes (2019) examined...
If you cite a work with more than one author or editor, additional rules apply:
- If a work has two authors, cite both names every time the reference occurs in the text.
- When citing a work with 3-5 authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs. After the first time, you only need to include the last name of the first author, followed by "et al."
- When citing 6 or more authors, use the first author's last name followed by "et al." for all citations.
According to the 7th edition of the APA Manual , if you are citing 3 or more authors, you only need to list the first author, followed by "et al." Click here to learn more about the difference between APA 6th and 7th editions.
The BibGuru free APA 7 citation generator has incorporated all the new APA 7th edition rules, so you don’t have to worry about the differences between the versions.
Basic in-text citation styles
When quoting directly, always provide the author, year, and page number of the quotation in the in-text citation. When citing a single page, use the abbreviation "p." (e.g., p. 26, p. S44, p. e283); for multiple pages, use the abbreviation "pp." and separate the page range with an en dash (e.g., pp. 34-36). If pages are discontinuous, use a comma between the page numbers (e.g., pp. 65, 72).
Here are two examples of direct quotations:
EXAMPLE Direct quotation
"For both parties to gain from trade, the price at which they trade must lie between the two opportunity costs" (Mankiw, 2015, p. 54).
EXAMPLE Direct quotation (narrative)
In his book, Bonnett asks "What is the difference between being white and being Western?" (2004, p. 14).
However, APA strongly recommends paraphrasing whenever possible instead of using a direct quotation. A paraphrase restates another's idea (or your own previously published idea) in your own words.
How to use Bibguru for APA citations
The reference list at the end of your paper provides the information that a reader would need to identify and find each source that you have used. An accurate reference list helps to establish the credibility of your work and of yourself as the author. You should only include works that you have used in the research for, and preparation of, your paper.
A reference list generally has four elements: author, date, title, and source. Each of these elements answers a question:
When formatting the author part , follow these guidelines:
- Invert all individual author's names, providing the last name first, followed by a comma and the initials: Author, A. A.
- Use a comma to separate an author's initials from additional author names, even when there are only two authors. Use an ampersand (&) before the final author's name: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.
- For up to 20 authors, provide last names and initials. Use an ampersand before the final author's name.
- For 21 and more authors, include the first 19 names, insert an ellipsis (...), and then add the final author's name.
- People who contributed substantially in roles other than the author can also be credited - an example would be an editor abbreviated as "(Ed.)"
APA 7th edition allows you to include up to 20 authors' names in an individual reference.
By using an APA 7 citation generator like BibGuru you can be on the safe side with the specific rules of the new version.
When formatting the title part , follow these guidelines:
- For works that are part of a greater whole (e.g. journal articles, edited book chapters), do not italicize the title or use quotation marks, and capitalize it using sentence cases.
- For works that stand alone (e.g. books, reports, websites), italicize the title, and capitalize it using sentence cases.
- Finish the title element with a period, unless it ends with a question mark or exclamation point. In that case, use that punctuation mark.
The source either has one or two parts, depending on the reference category. A source from a printed book without a DOI has one part: the book's publisher. A source from a journal article with a DOI has two parts; the periodical information (journal title, volume number, issue number, and page range or article number) and the DOI.
The publication place of printed sources is no longer required in APA 7th edition. Visit our post on the differences between APA 6th and 7th edition to learn more.
The DOI or URL is the final component of the reference list entry in the APA style. A DOI, or digital object identifier , is a unique alphanumeric string that identifies content and provides a persistent link to its location on the internet. Include a DOI for all works that have a DOI, regardless of whether you used the online version or the print version. If an online work has both a DOI and a URL, include only the DOI, but if the source only has a URL, include the URL.
You no longer need to include "retrieved from" prior to listing a URL, according to APA 7th edition.
How to format the reference list in APA:
- Begin the reference list on a new page after the text.
- Name it "References", and center the section label in bold at the top of the page.
- Order the reference list alphabetically by author (last name of the first author followed by the initials of the author's given name(s)).
- Alphabetize entries by authors who have the same given name and last name with suffixes indicating birth order chronologically, oldest first.
- Double-space the entire list (both within and between entries).
- Apply a hanging indent of 0.5 in. to each entry. This means that the first line of the reference is flush left and subsequent lines are indented 0.5 in. from the left margin.
An example of an APA reference page made with BibGuru's APA citation generator .
- Books and Reference Works
- Journals and Periodicals
- Webpages and Websites
- Dissertations and Theses
Books and Reference Works includes authored books , edited books , translated books , anthologies, religious works, classical works, dictionaries, encyclopedias, and diagnostic manuals. This template shows you how to cite them.
EXAMPLE Authored book with a DOI
Berg, G. A. (2010). Low-income students and the perpetuation of inequality: Higher education in America . Ashgate. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315593067
Parenthetical citation: (Berg, 2010)
Narrative citation: Berg (2010)
EXAMPLE Authored book without a DOI, from most academic research databases or print version
Hess, E. J. (2012). The civil war in the West: Victory and defeat from the Appalachians to the Mississippi . University of North Carolina Press.
Parenthetical citation: (Hess, 2012)
Narrative citation: Hess (2012)
EXAMPLE Edited book with a DOI, with multiple authors
Brooks, R., & O'Shea, S. (Eds.) (2021). Reimagining the higher education student: Constructing and contesting identities . Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780367854171
Parenthetical citation: (Brooks & O'Shea, 2021)
Narrative citation: Brooks and O'Shea (2021)
EXAMPLE Dictionary, thesaurus, or encyclopedia
Masolo, D. (2006). African sage philosophy. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2008 ed.). Stanford University. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/african-sage/
Parenthetical citation: (Masolo, 2006)
Narrative citation: Masolo (2006)
EXAMPLE Book in another language
When a book is in a different language than your paper, include a translation of the book title in square brackets:
Ferrante, E. (2011). L’amica geniale [My brilliant friend]. Edizioni E/O.
Parenthetical citation: (Ferrante, 2011)
Narrative citation: Ferrante (2011)
Periodicals are generally published on a continuous basis and include journals , magazines , newspapers , newsletters, and even blog posts. This template shows you how to cite them.
EXAMPLE Journal article with a DOI
Lowe, M. S., Macy, K. V., Murphy, E., & Kani, J. (2021). Questioning CRAAP: A comparison of source evaluation methods with first-year undergraduate students. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning , 21 (3). https://doi.org/10.14434/josotl.v21i3.30744
Parenthetical citation: (Lowe et al., 2021)
Narrative citation: Lowe et al. (2021)
EXAMPLE Journal article with a DOI, 21 or more authors
Grantham, H. S., Duncan, A., Evans, T. D., Jones, K. R., Beyer, H. L., Schuster, R., Walston, J., Ray, J. C., Robinson, J. G., Callow, M., Clements, T., Costa, H. M., DeGemmis, A., Elsen, P. R., Ervin, J., Franco, P., Goldman, E., Goetz, S., Hansen, A., … Watson, J. E. M. (2020). Anthropogenic modification of forests means only 40% of remaining forests have high ecosystem integrity. Nature Communications , 11 (1), 5978. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19493-3
Parenthetical citation: (Grantham et al., 2020)
Narrative citation: (Grantham et al., 2020)
EXAMPLE Magazine article version
Lyons, D. (2009, June 15). Don’t ‘iTune’ us: It’s geeks versus writers. Guess who’s winning. Newsweek , 153 (24), 27.
Parenthetical citation: (Lyons, 2009)
Narrative citation: (Lyons, 2009)
Darwish, F. (2014). How being a cat person can dramatically enhance your psychological health. Psych Daily, 6 (4), 4-5. https://www-psychdaily-com/the-pets-cats-report/emotional-health/
Parenthetical citation: (Darwish, 2014)
Narrative citation: Darwish (2014)
If you cite a source from a website and no other reference category fits and the work has no parent or overarching publication (e.g. journal or blog), use this template for your reference.
EXAMPLE Webpage on a news website
France-Presse, A. (2021, June 10). Child labour worldwide increases for first time in 20 years. The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/law/2021/jun/10/child-labour-worldwide-increases-for-first-time-in-20-years
Parenthetical citation: (France-Presse, 2021)
Narrative citation: France-Presse (2021)
EXAMPLE University website
Hamido, K. A., & Essam, J. A. (n.d.). Use of artificial intelligence in forensic analyses . Cairo Medical School. http://www.med.cairo.edu/AANLIB/
Parenthetical citation: (Hamido & Essam, n.d.)
Narrative citation: Hamido and Essam (n.d.)
EXAMPLE Blog post
Priyadarshini, S. (n.d.). How outreach blends my worlds as a scientist and mom. Indigenus. http://blogs.nature.com/indigenus/2021/05/how-outreach-blends-my-worlds-as-a-scientist-and-mom.html
Parenthetical citation: (Priyadarshini, n.d.)
Narrative citation: Priyadarshini (n.d.)
EXAMPLE Website with no author
Neuroscience. (n.d.). Wikipedia . Retrieved June 6, 2007 from http://en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Neuroscience
Parenthetical citation: ("Neuroscience", n.d.)
Narrative citation: "Neuroscience" (n.d.)
EXAMPLE Government website
Egyptian Center for Nuclear Energy. (n.d.). Becoming a research volunteer . https://www.ECNE.gov/cne/sites/default/files/ohrp/research/ brochures/3panelfinal.pdf
Parenthetical citation: (Egyptian Center for Nuclear Energy, n.d.)
Narrative citation: Egyptian Center for Nuclear Energy (n.d.)
EXAMPLE Entry in an online reference work
Sameer, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E. N. Rashed (Ed.), The encyclopedia of psychology (Fall 2014 ed.). http://pyche.com/entries/behaviorism
Parenthetical citation: (Sameer, 2005)
Narrative citation: Sameer (2005)
References for dissertations and theses are divided by whether they are unpublished or published. Unpublished works must be retrieved directly from the university in print form. Published works are available from a database, a university archive, or a personal website. This is how you cite them:
Unpublished works (only available at the college or univeristy in print):
EXAMPLE Unpublished dissertation or thesis
Eid, H. (2017). The anti-cancer effect of scorpion venom (Unpublished master’s thesis). Modern Sciences and Arts University.
Parenthetical citation: (Eid, 2017)
Narrative citation: Eid (2017)
EXAMPLE Published dissertation or thesis from a database
Mccarthy, M. D. (2014). The relationship between sleep deprivation and student performance (Order No. 3682837) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
Parenthetical citation: (Mccarthy, 2014)
Narrative citation: Mccarthy (2014)
EXAMPLE Published dissertation or thesis from a database-no publication number
Brown, S. (2010). Impacts of jellyfish invasion in the red sea [Master’s thesis, American University in Cairo]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database.
Parenthetical citation: (Brown, 2010)
Narrative citation: Brown (2010)
EXAMPLE Published dissertation or thesis from an online platform
Anthony, H. (2014). Link between childhood trauma and alcoholism (Doctoral dissertation). FloridaLink. Retrieved from https://etd.floridalink.edu/handle/10919/82854
Parenthetical citation: (Anthony, 2014)
Narrative citation: Anthony (2014)
EXAMPLE Dissertation or thesis in print
Hawk, E. J. (2017). Using artificial intelligence to prioritize covid-19 vaccine delivery (Master's thesis). Cairo University.
Parenthetical citation: (Hawk, 2017)
Narrative citation: Hawk (2017)
EXAMPLE TED Talk
Azab, A. (2012, June). Why are people so rude? [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/why_are_people_so_rude
Parenthetical citation: (Azab, 2012)
Narrative citation: Azab (2012)
EXAMPLE YouTube video
Bomer, M. (2013, June 13). Does it puree? [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=97KJhK-9yvc
Parenthetical citation: (Bomer, 2013)
Narrative citation: Bomer (2013)
Abdelaal, D. R (Host). (2017–2018). What should you be doing in your twenties? [Audio podcast]. The millennial. https://themillenial.com/
Parenthetical citation: (Abdelaal, 2017–2018)
Narrative citation: Abdelaal (2017–2018)
Hassan, A. (1908). The Nile River [Photograph]. Time. http://100photos.time.com/photos/asad-hassan-the-nile-river
Parenthetical citation: (Hassan, 1908)
Narrative citation: Hassan (1908)
EXAMPLE Facebook post
The girl project. (2020, January 10). Signs you have poor boundaries [Image attached] [Photo]. Facebook.
Parenthetical citation: (The girl project, 2020)
Narrative citation: The girl project (2020)
While all the specific rules of the APA citation style might sound very complicated, you don't need to worry about getting them wrong with BibGuru. Use our APA 7 citation maker to create the fastest and most accurate APA citations possible.
Ditch the frustrations for stress-free citations
Helpful resources, from our blog.
More Bibguru APA guides
University Guides on APA styles
- Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL)
- Williams College
- Florida State University Libraries
- New York University Libraries
- University of Washington Libraries
- Penn State University Libraries
- University of Nevada, Reno Libraries
- University of Texas at Arlington Libraries
- Bowling Green State University Libraries
- University of Missouri Libraries
- Boston College Libraries
- Hamilton College Writing Center
- Bellevue University Writing Center
- Hudson Valley Community College Library
- University of South Carolina Libraries
- University at Buffalo iLab
- University of Portland Library
- Duquesne University Library
- Columbia College Library (Vancouver, BC, CA)
- Simon Fraser University Library (BC, CA)
APA is the referencing style of the American Psychological Association. The principles of the APA style can be found in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association . The style is commonly used in psychology, education, and the social sciences.
In APA style, you need to cite your source in-text with the author's last name and year of publication in brackets, and then give a full reference in the alphabetic reference list. Our APA citation guides show you how to cite different sources in APA, taking into consideration all the rules set out in their Publication Manual .
In general, all parts of an APA-styled paper should be double-spaced, including the abstract, text, titles, notes, and reference list. There are some exceptions, however, which you can read all about here .
When you cite a source for the first time in a paragraph as part of a sentence, give the citation of your author's name and year. The second and subsequent time you use that source in a sentence, you do not need to include the year anymore.
In the fall of 2019, the American Psychological Association (APA) issued the 7th edition of their publication manual. Some of the major changes in APA 7th are:
- Book references now omit the publisher location.
- Journal articles should always include an issue number.
- You can add up to 20 authors in a reference list instead of only 7.
- Websites’ URL s omit the “Retrieved from” or "Accessed from" phrase.
You can read more about the changes in the latest version in our blog post .
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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / APA Format / APA Website Citation
How to Cite a Website in APA
This guide explains all of the important steps to referencing a website/web page in your APA research papers. The guidance below follows APA style, 7th edition.
APA format is much different than MLA format and other styles. If you need to cite websites in MLA , or you’re looking for more styles , check out the other resources on EasyBib.com!
Here’s a run-through of everything this page includes:
What is a website? Am I citing a website or a web page?
Citing a website in the text (in-text citation), citing a website on the reference page, citing a general web article without an author, titles of pages on the web, extra information, publisher information, web addresses and dois, apa format for online news articles, additional website citation examples, troubleshooting.
A website is a place on the Internet that holds a group of individual pages (called web pages).
Think of a website like a tree. A website is the tree, and the individual web pages are the branches. Use YouTube as an example. YouTube is the site, and the individual channel pages and video pages are the branches. Wikipedia is a site, and each article has its own individual web page on that site.
Most of the time, you aren’t trying to cite a whole, entire site, but actually an individual web page. If you used a YouTube video to help you with your research project, you wouldn’t cite the entire YouTube site, you would cite the specific YouTube page the video was found on.
Here’s a similar question we’re often asked when it comes to the APA citation of a web page:
Q: This page describes citing specific pages and articles. Can I cite an entire site?
A: According to the APA manual (7th edition), it is not necessary to cite a site in its entirety in a reference list. Instead, include a reference to the website in the body of your paper and cite any web page individually.
The Department of Justice has just released a new site called ReportCrime.gov at https://www.reportcrime.gov/ to help people identify and report crimes in their area.
In the above passage, the website is stated in the text rather than cited. This guide focuses on how to cite individual pages found on the web (web pages). If you used an entire website, it’s perfectly acceptable to cite the whole site in the text of your paper, as shown above, but for the most part, you want to cite the page where the information was found.
If you’re seeking out an APA citation website to take the stress away from proper referencing, try out EasyBib.com! Stop typing into the search bar, “how to cite a website APA” or “APA in-text citation website.” EasyBib.com is the answer to your referencing questions and needs!
When you include a piece of information from a site in your project, you must include two citations: a brief citation in the text and also a full citation on the reference page.
When it comes to mentions in the text, students are sometimes tempted to put the web address in the body of a project. However, URLs can be long, clunky, and distracting. They should never be written in the body of a project.
Instead of writing the full address in the text, use the last name of the author and the date the source was published. If no author is shown, write the title of the individual page and the date.
For direct quotations, you may use paragraphs to indicate the quotation’s location in the work. Count the paragraphs manually if needed and use the abbreviation “para.” for paragraph.
Check out this in-text citation APA website example:
Cite your source
The above APA website in-text citation (the author’s last name and the date the information was published) corresponds to the information on the final page of the project, the reference page.
Here’s how the full APA citation for a web page looks on the final page of the project:
Need more in-text citation APA website info? Here’s more on how to build an APA parenthetical citation . You may also like our full-length guide on how to create an APA in-text citation .
If you’re looking for information on structuring other styles in the text of your paper, check out our page on MLA in-text and parenthetical citations .
In the next section of this APA citation website guide, we’re going to focus on how to format an APA website citation. If you’re wondering how to create an APA citation of a web page, the majority of web references use the structure shown below.
General structure for how to cite a website in APA
Note: A retrieval date is no longer required for online sources. It’s only needed if the content is likely to change over time (such as wikis and social media). The article or page title should be italicized. The URL is at the end and does not have a period after it.
Full reference example:
View Screenshot | Cite your source
Example of an in-text citation for a website in APA:
If you’re looking for an APA format website to do the work for you, try out EasyBib.com’s citation generator. Our APA citation website makes referencing a breeze!
APA citation for website structure:
Do you need to cite a source with no author in APA ? No problem. Wikipedia pages, online dictionary sites, and online encyclopedia sites are just a few examples of sites without an author. When there is no clear individual author, use the website organization (group author) as the author.
There are plenty of times when an individual’s name isn’t listed as the author, but the information on the site is written by a group, organization, or company.
In an APA website citation, it is completely acceptable to use the group’s name in the author position. Type it out in its entirety and add a period at the end. Check out the various APA citation of web page examples at the bottom of the page to see group authors in action!
Note: If the author name and website name is the same, just list it once in as the author; leave out the website name section in the APA citation.
APA citation for website example:
If you’re wondering whether to include the full date in your APA citation for web pages (month, day, and year) or just the year, we have the answer for you here.
An APA citation of web page reference includes the month, day, and year if it’s a site that is updated with new information frequently. Blog posts, newspaper articles, posts from social media profiles, and YouTube videos are just a few of the sources that would display the full date. In an APA citation for web pages, it’s written in this order in parentheses: (Year, Month Day).
If there is any information missing, simply include what is available. Also, if there is no date , indicate this by using (n.d.).
No date APA website example:
If you’re using the EasyBib citation generator to create an APA citation for a web page, our technology structures dates for you in their proper order. It’s the APA format website (and also the APA in-text citation website) you’ve been waiting for. Give it a whirl!
Here’s the advice we provide on many of our guides:
- If the source you are citing is a standalone source, meaning an entire book, television series, or film, the title of such sources should be in italics.
- If, however, you are citing a piece of a larger source, i.e., a journal article, a page on a site, or an episode of a show, the title should be in sentence case and not in italics.
Long story short, do not italicize an APA citation for web pages’ title in the text and on the final page of references.
For full references on the final page of the project, only include capital letters at the beginning of the title, at the beginning of each proper noun, and at the beginning of the first word in the subtitle.
The title is written in the text only when there isn’t an author listed. So, instead of showing the reference as (Author, Date), use (“Title of Page,” Date) in any APA citation for web pages. Notice the switch from sentence case to title case in the text reference.
A little extra information goes a long way when it comes to site citations. If you’re including a unique source type, include information about the medium directly after the title. This information is placed in brackets. Only the first letter is capitalized.
Here are a few examples you might see in an APA citation for a web page:
To see some of the extra information in action, scroll down to the examples towards the bottom of this page.
Speaking of extra information, it may not hurt to get some extra details on grammar topics in that brain of yours. Brush up on your adjective , pronoun , and interjection knowledge with our comprehensive guides!
Any information related to the publisher is not invited to the web citation party. In an APA citation of a web page, you do not need to include information about the company that made the site, where its offices are located, or any other similar information about the company in any web references. One thing less to worry about in your APA citation for web pages!
Other source types are much different, so before you exclude publisher information from all of your references, make sure you check out our APA citation page. While you’re at it, check out our other helpful resources, such as APA reference page and MLA works cited .
We also need a web address and DOI number in an APA citation for a web page. Including site addresses and DOIs are an absolute necessity. Addresses and DOIs (which stand for direct object identifiers) are usually the last item in an APA website citation.
For sites, after adding the full URL to the APA citation for a web page, do not end it with a period. If the address is very long, it is acceptable to roll it onto the next line, but break it up so that a type of punctuation mark or symbol is the first item closest to the left margin. Check out the APA citation of a webpage URL below.
APA citation of a webpage example of a properly structured URL:
DOI numbers are assigned by publishers to electronic sources such as journal articles, e-books, datasets, and more. They’re a string of numbers and sometimes other characters. If the source you’re using has a DOI number assigned to it, place it at the end of the APA website citation, instead of the URL, in this format: https://doi.org/10.XXXXXXXXX. Place the DOI string in place of the X’s shown above.
DOIs were created to combat the problem of broken links and 404 errors (pages taken down). Think about it: if a webpage is taken off of the Internet, it can be pretty difficult to find a copy of it. If you’re lucky, an archive site may have a copy stored somewhere, but for the most part, when sites are gone, they’re gone. DOIs are permanent, making them the ideal choice to include in any APA citation for webpages.
APA properly structured DOI:
APA differentiates between traditional newspapers that are online versus news websites with no daily/weekly/monthly newspaper or magazine edition. Unsure what you’re citing? Follow this decision tree:
- YES –> Cite it as a newspaper article.
- NO –> Cite it as a web page or a news site article.
- NO –> Cite it as a web page or news site article.
Online news article APA example:
News sites with no associated daily/weekly/monthly publication should be cited like a web page. That means the article title is italicized and the publisher/site name is in plan font. This format applies to articles from these sites:
- MSNBC Fox News
Newspaper article online APA example:
Sites associated with a daily/weekly/monthly publication should be cited as a newspaper article. That means the article title is in plain font and the publisher/site name is italicized. This format applies to articles from these sites:
- The New York Times
- The Guardian
- The Times of India
- The Wall Street Journal
- The Washington Post
- Yomiuri Shimbun
Below are various web reference examples to give you a quick visual of how pages are structured and organized. Quick reminder that if you’re trying to create a reference for an e-book found on the web, use the APA book citation page. In addition, if it’s an online article from journal, use our APA journal page.
If you’re looking for a quick and easy way to build your references, EasyBib.com is an APA citation website that does the work for you. Try it out and say hello to stress-free referencing and goodbye to constantly searching for “how to cite a website APA” or “how to cite APA” on search engines. The APA offers more information here .
How to cite a group/organization/company:
How to cite a blog post in apa:.
The structure is the same, but the format is slightly different: The blog article title is in plain text, and the name of the blog is italicized.
APA citation of a web page example for Facebook:
The text of the post is italicized, while the site name (Facebook) is in plain text.
APA citation of a web page example for Twitter:
Cite your source
If the name of the author is unknown, start the APA citation of a web page for Twitter with the username.
Need another set of eyes to check your paper for grammar and spelling edits? Not quite sure if every determiner , preposition , or conjunction is where it belongs? Check out our grammar and plagiarism checker . It’s the answer to all of your grammar questions!
If you’re still confused and typing into the search bar, “how to cite APA” or “how to cite a website APA,” try out EasyBib.com’s reference generator. It’s fast, easy, and allows you to focus on your writing and research, and less on your references. The best part? It creates both types of references. It has an in-text citation website APA generator and also a full reference generator! What are you waiting for? Go see the magic happen!
Here’s a quick video overview of how to cite a website in APA:
Solution #1: Determining the website company, the author, the publisher, or both (APA)
A website citation included in an APA-format bibliography doesn’t need a publisher, so you do not need to worry whether the website company is the publisher of a page you want to cite!
If an author isn’t credited on a given webpage, the website company should be listed as the author. This also goes for online encyclopedias, dictionaries, etc.
Here’s an example for a full bibliography:
Roman empire. (2022, February 6). In Wikipedia . https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Empire
Here is an example for an in-text citation:
(“Roman Empire,” 2022)
Solution #2: How to cite images and videos from social media in APA format
Making a bibliographic citation for a photo or video from social media is similar to making a citation for any website. Examples that fall into this category include photos, videos, or social media-specific mediums like highlights, reels, moments, or lives.
For your full citation in your bibliography, use the caption of the photo or video, up to 20 words, as the title. Denote the style of media in brackets, following the title.
For sources like Instagram Reels, Highlights, and other media whose exact date of posting is hard to discern, include the date you found and cited the photo or video rather than the original date the media was shared.
Here are examples of bibliographic citations:
World Wildlife Foundation [wwf]. (2021, October 20). This year marks our 60 years of action for people and nature. Together, we’ve done so much… [Photo]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/CVQQbF_KmA6/
New York Times [nytimes]. (n.d.) NYC Marathon 2021 [Highlight]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/stories/highlights/17928514339867051/
Here are the corresponding in-text citations:
(World Wildlife Foundation, 2021)
(New York Times, 2021)
Solution #3: How emojis are cited in APA format
If the website or social media post you are citing contains an emoji, keep the emoji in your full bibliographic citation without altering it.
Reference list example:
Grande, A [arianagrande]. (2021, October 18) the final #voicebattles begin tonight @nbcthevoice.🧚🏼♂️ thank you @kchenoweth, i love you. [Photo]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/CVLfY_vv_3c/
In-text citation example:
If you have trouble pasting the emoji into your full citation, put the emoji’s name followed by the word “emoji” all in brackets within your citation instead. Use Unicode’s Emoji Charts to look up the widely accepted, technical name of the emoji you want to cite.
Grande, A [arianagrande]. the final the final #voicebattles begin tonight @nbcthevoice . [woman fairy emoji] thank you @kchenoweth , i love you. [Photo]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/CVLfY_vv_3c/
This guide is not officially associated with the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, but it does provide information in line with the manual.
APA Formatting Guide
- Annotated Bibliography
- Block Quotes
- et al Usage
- In-text Citations
- Multiple Authors
- Page Numbers
- Parenthetical Citations
- Reference Page
- Sample Paper
- APA 7 Updates
- View APA Guide
- Book Chapter
- Journal Article
- Magazine Article
- Newspaper Article
- Website (no author)
- View all APA Examples
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You will need the webpage’s author’s name, publication date, title of the page, website name, and the URL.
Here is an example with an author:
Geggel, L. (2021, July 6). A brief history of dinosaurs . LiveScience. https://www.livescience.com/3945-history-dinosaurs.html
Usually, if no author is shown the website is assumed to be the author. In these cases, the website name replaces the author name in the beginning of the reference.
National Park Service. (2018, July 23). Night skies as a cultural-historical resource . https://www.nps.gov/subjects/nightskies/cultural.htm
The URL of a website is mandatory if you cite a website or a webpage. Where you include the URL depends on the type of citation. To cite a website as a general reference without any reference to a specific page or particular details, simply add the name of the website in the text and include the URL in parentheses. There is no need to add a reference list entry. However, to cite a webpage on a website, you need to provide both an in-text citation and a reference list entry. Do not add the URL in the in-text citation. Just add the author’s name and year. The URL is given only in the reference list entry. Templates for in-text citations and reference list entries of a website or webpage along with examples are given below.
Website as a general reference
We took the data from the Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India (https://censusindia.gov.in/).
Webpage of a website
In-text citation templates and examples:
Author Surname (publication year)
(Author Surname, publication year)
Note that month and day are not mentioned in in-text citations.
Reference list entry template and example:
Author Surname, F. M. (Year, Month Day). Title of the webpage. Name of the Site. URL
Skelton, R. (2017, February 16). Fact check’s return perfect timing in ‘post truth’ age. ABC Opinion. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-02-16/fact-check-return-perfect-timing-in-post-truth-age/8277268
APA Citation Examples
Other Citation Styles
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How to Make APA Citation Style Bibliography - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
How to Make APA Citation Style Bibliography
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- Every now and again utilized as a part of sociologies, the APA style is a standout amongst the most widely recognized furthermore a standout amongst the most troublesome citation styles. Referencing research papers in APA is done another way (BBGV51020)
- Government Document
- E.g. National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical preparing in serious emotional instability (DHHS Publication No. ADM 90-1679). Washington, DC U.S. Government Printing Office.
- Private Organization Report
- E.g. American Psychiatric Associations. (2000). Hone rules for the treatment of patients with eating disorders (second ed.). Washington, DC Author.
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APA In-text Citations · Include the author's last name, a comma, and the year of publication. · Put an ampersand between the authors' last names
After the first time, you only need to include the last name of the first author, followed by "et al." When citing 6 or more authors, use the first author's last name followed by "et al." for all citations
Referencing research papers in APA is done another way: (BBGV51020) – PowerPoint PPT presentation